This paper addresses the issue of the historical development of for fear (that) in English – a prepositional subordinator ushering in fi nite clauses of purpose in which negation is inherently coded, i.e. the content of the subordinate clause is negated by the complementiser which does not contain a negative particle in itself. The rise of this construction is studied within the theory of grammaticalization and it turns out to be a regular case of grammaticalization following the mechanisms of grammaticalization such as desemanticisation, extension and decategorialisation.
Speech emotion recognition is an important part of human-machine interaction studies. The acoustic analysis method is used for emotion recognition through speech. An emotion does not cause changes on all acoustic parameters. Rather, the acoustic parameters affected by emotion vary depending on the emotion type. In this context, the emotion-based variability of acoustic parameters is still a current field of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the acoustic parameters that fear affects and the extent of their influence. For this purpose, various acoustic parameters were obtained from speech records containing fear and neutral emotions. The change according to the emotional states of these parameters was analyzed using statistical methods, and the parameters and the degree of influence that the fear emotion affected were determined. According to the results obtained, the majority of acoustic parameters that fear affects vary according to the used data. However, it has been demonstrated that formant frequencies, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and jitter parameters can define the fear emotion independent of the data used.
Perception takes into account the costs and benefits of possible interpretations of incoming sensory data. This should be especially pertinent for threat recognition, where minimising the costs associated with missing a real threat is of primary importance. We tested whether recognition of threats has special characteristics that adapt this process to the task it fulfils. Participants were presented with images of threats and visually matched neutral stimuli, distorted by varying levels of noise. We found threat superiority effect and liberal response bias. Moreover, increasing the level of noise degraded the recognition of the neutral images to higher extent than the threatening images. To summarise, recognising threats is special, in that it is more resistant to noise and decline in stimulus quality, suggesting that threat recognition is a fast ‘all or nothing’ process, in which threat presence is either confirmed or negated.