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Abstract

This study was carried out on the background of Sutong Bridge project based on fracture mechanics, aiming at analyzing the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks of a bridge under the load of vehicles. Stress intensity factor (SIF) can be calculated by various methods. Three steel plates with different kinds of cracks were taken as the samples in this study. With the combination of finite element analysis software ABAQUS and the J integral method, SIF values of the samples were calculated. After that, the extended finite element method in the simulation of fatigue crack growth was introduced, and the simulation of crack growth paths under different external loads was analyzed. At last, we took a partial model from the Sutong Bridge and supposed its two dangerous parts already had fine cracks; then simulative vehicle load was added onto the U-rib to predict crack growth paths using the extended finite element method.
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Abstract

The paper deals with the application of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to simulations of discrete macro-cracks in plain concrete specimens under tension, bending and shear. Fundamental relationships and basic discrete constitutive laws were described. The most important aspects of the numerical implementation were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the method were outlined.
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Abstract

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
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Abstract

The essential parameters for structure integrity assessment in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) are Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs). The estimation of SIFs can be done by analytical or numerical techniques. The analytical estimation of SIFs is limited to simple structures with non-complicated boundaries, loads and supports. An effective numerical technique for analyzing problems with singular fields, such as fracture mechanics problems, is the extended finite element method (XFEM). In the paper, XFEM is applied to compute an actual stress field in a two-dimensional cracked body. The XFEM is based on the idea of enriching the approximation in the vicinity of the discontinuity. As a result, the numerical model consists of three types of elements: non-enriched elements, fully enriched elements (the domain of whom is cut by a discontinuity), and partially enriched elements (the so-called blending elements). In a blending element, some but not all of the nodes are enriched, which adds to the approximation parasitic term. The error caused by the parasitic terms is partly responsible for the degradation of the convergence rate. It also limits the accuracy of the method. Eliminating blending elements from approximation space and replacing them with standard elements, together with applying shifted-basis enrichment, makes it possible to avoid the problem. The numerical examples show improvements in results when compared with the standard XFEM approach.
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Abstract

Nominal strength reduction in cross ply laminates of [0/90]2s is observed in tensile tests of glass fiber composite laminates having central open hole of diameters varying from 2 to 10 mm. This is well known as the size effect. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is implemented to simulate the fracture process and size effect (scale effect) in the glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates weakened by holes or notches. The analysis shows that XFEM results are in good agreement with the experimental results specifying nominal strength and in good agreement with the analytical results based on the cohesive zone model specifying crack opening displacement and the fracture process zone length.
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