Scientists around the world agree that nowadays, science is facing severe challenges like poor peer-review system, replicability crisis, or locked science behind paywalls. The National Science Center addresses at least some of them by introducing procedures that promote integrity, ethics, social responsibility, transparency, and openness in science.
Rockburst is a common engineering geological hazard. In order to evaluate rockburst liability in kimberlite at an underground diamond mine, a method combining generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) and fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is employed. Based on two fundamental premises of rockburst occurrence, depth, σθ, σc, σt, B1, B2, SCF, Wet are determined as indicators of rockburst, which are also input vectors of GRNN model. 132 groups of data obtained from rockburst cases from all over the world are chosen as training samples to train the GRNN model; FOA is used to seek the optimal parameter σ that generates the most accurate GRNN model. The trained GRNN model is adopted to evaluate burst liability in kimberlite pipes. The same eight rockburst indicators are acquired from lab tests, mine site and FEM model as test sample features. Evaluation results made by GRNN can be confirmed by a rockburst case at this mine. GRNN do not require any prior knowledge about the nature of the relationship between the input and output variables and avoid analyzing the mechanism of rockburst, which has a bright prospect for engineering rockburst potential evaluation.
The text analyses the documentation of the periodic evaluation of academic teachers at 22 Polish universities with the faculties of Pedagogy, shows the conditions of this evaluation and characterises its procedure. The content analysis reveals what issues in the internal regulatory documents establish the periodic evaluation of academic teachers and its procedure, as well as the extent to which they are represented in these documents. In order to fully describe the regulations and to explore the differences among the universities in the area of teacher evaluation, the authors used a statistical analysis. The results show a wide variation of the elements that are included in the internal documents regulating the periodic evaluation of academic teachers. The authors refer to the contemporary press and media discussion on the condition of universities and the directions of their development. They interpret the findings referring also to the contemporary perception of a university as an enterprise as well as to strong bureaucracy at the universities and its adverse impact on their evaluation system.
The paper presents an original method for assessing the landscape physiognomy of the rural public spaces. It takes into account both the purely aesthetic qualities as well as those that affect the functionality, attractiveness and significance of a given space. The following features are evaluated: coziness, availability, the nature of the edges, presence of greenery, presence of water ecosystems, presence of landscape dominants and landmarks, opening and view connec-tions, presence of negative elements, local identity and tradition, bendiness, and the nature of light. The method has been applied to evaluate the selected rural public spaces of the Polesie region realized in the years 2008–2015. The study revealed that 40% of the analyzed places were rated positively, 33% neutrally and 27% negatively. The article examines the types of spaces which obtained the highest and the lowest raring position, as well as features that affect this as-sessment. Besides, the analysis of main advantages and disadvantages of newly created public spaces show direction of their improvement.
An original fuzzy team control model is presented in this article. The model is based on a non-traditional combination of classical and contemporary achievements of management and mathematical theories of fuzzy logic and fuzzy sets. In methodological terms, the article also offers a set of tools for measuring and evaluating both team performance and the effectiveness of the team control system in the organization. Fuzzy tools and techniques for decision-making, studying of hidden effects and joint influences, and quantification of evaluations are employed in this set of tools. The suggested fuzzy model contributes to overcoming theoretical deficits on the issues of team control, and the methodology of team control fills a gap in the toolkit of team management. The results from verification of the fuzzy team control model at a small-sized Bulgarian enterprise are also discussed in this article. They indicate that it is possible to develop a fuzzy model for team control, increasing the effectiveness of the team control system in the enterprise.
The results of long-term continuous noise measurements in two selected schools are presented in the paper. Noise characteristics were measured continuously there for approximately 16 months. Measurements started eight months prior to the acoustic treatment of the school corridors of both schools. An evaluation of the acoustic climates in both schools, before and after the acoustic treatment, was performed based on comparison of these two periods of continuous measurements. The autonomous noise monitoring stations, engineered at the Multimedia Systems Department of the Gdańsk University of Technology were used for this purpose. Investigations of measured noise, especially its influence on hearing sense, assessed on ground of spectral analyses in critical bands, is discussed. Effects of occupational noise exposure, including the Temporary Threshold Shift simulation, are determined. The correlation of the above said measurement results with respective instantaneous noise levels is discussed, and concluding remarks are presented. Some additional indicators such as air pollution or video analysis aiming at the analysis of corridor occupancy are also measured. It should be remembered that excessive noise, or air pollution may be evidence of a dangerous event and may pose health risks.
This paper constitutes the sensitivity study of application the Polar WRF model to the Svalbard area with testing selected parameterizations, including planetary boundary layer, radiation and microphysics schemes. The model was configured, using three one-way nested domains with 27 km, 9 km and 3 km grid cell resolutions. Results from the innermost domain were presented and compared against measured wind speed and air temperature at 10 meteorological stations. The study period covers two months: June 2008 and January 2009. Significant differences between simulations results occurred for planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in January 2009. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme resulted in the lowest errors for air temperature, according to mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient values, where for wind speed this scheme was the worst from all the PBL schemes tested. In the case of June 2008, shortwave and longwave radiation schemes influenced the results the most. Generally, higher correlations were obtained for January, both for air temperature and wind speed. However, the model performs better for June in terms of ME and MAE error statistics. The results were also analyzed spatially, to summarize the uncertainty of the model results related to the analyzed parameterization schemes groups. Significant variability among simulations was calculated for January 2009 over the northern part of Spitsbergen and fjords for the PBL schemes. Standard deviations for monthly average simulated values were up to 3.5°C for air temperature and around 1 m s-1 for wind speed.
Two violins were investigated. The only intentionally introduced difference between them was the type of varnish. One of the instruments was covered with a spirit varnish, the other was oil varnished. Experimental modal analysis was done for unvarnished/varnished violins and a questionnaire inquiry on the instrument’s sound quality was performed. The aim of both examinations was to find differences and similarities between the two instruments in the objective (modal parameters) and subjective domain (subjective evaluation of sound quality). In the modal analysis, three strongly radiating signature modes were taken into account. Varnishing did not change the sequence of mode shapes. Modal frequencies A0 and B(1+) were not changed by oil varnishing compared to the unvarnished condition. For the oil varnished instrument, the frequency of mode B(1+) was lower than that of the same mode of the spirit varnished instrument. Our two violins were not excellent instruments, but before varnishing they were practically identical. However, after varnishing it appeared that the oil-varnished violin was better than the spirit-varnished instrument. Therefore, it can be assumed with a fairly high probability that also in general, the oil-varnished violins sound somewhat better than initially identical spirit-varnished ones.
An evaluation method is developed for temperature oscillation experiments in heat exchangers. The unity Mach number dispersion model is applied. For the consideration of lateral wall heat conduction an effective wall thickness is introduced together with a wall heat transfer coefficient. The evaluation method may also be applied to single blow experiments with pulse signals. A sensitivity analysis describes and discusses the accuracy of different evaluation procedures.
An evaluation method is developed for single blow experiments with liquids on heat exchangers. The method is based on the unity Mach number dispersion model. The evaluation of one experiment yields merely one equation for the two unknowns, the number of transfer units and the dispersive Peclet number. Calculations on an example confirm that one single blow test alone cannot provide reliable values of the unknowns. A second test with a liquid of differing heat capacity is required, or a tracer experiment for the measurement of the Peclet number. A modified method is developed for gases. One experiment yields the effective number of transfer units and approximate values of the two unknowns. The numerical evaluation of calculated experiments demonstrates the applicability of the evaluation methods.
Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of 'zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650°C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670°C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.
The recently developed special unity Mach number dispersion model prescribes the corrections to heat transfer coefficients which are simple functions of the dispersive Peclet numbers. They can be determined through the residence time measurements. An evaluation method is described in which the measured input and response concentration profiles are numerically Laplace transformed and evaluated in the frequency domain. A characteristic mean Peclet number is defined. The method is also applied to the parabolic dispersion model and the cascade model. A calculated example of a tube bundle with maldistribution and backflow demonstrates the suitability of the evaluation method.
In this paper, the distances between pedestrian crossings in twenty one places in the city of Wrocław, together with their evaluation by the researched groups of students, were analyzed. The database created from the collected questionnaires contains a set of two-dimensional variables: the distance between crossings and the rating of the students. The database set was analyzed using a fuzzy data mining approach to create particular clusters. Various numbers of clusters were analyzed, and the division of data into three clusters made it possible to relate the analysis to the LOS methodology. Each variable was enriched with a third dimension representing a membership value. The obtained evaluated distances are similar to values recommended in literature, although the distances highly evaluated by the students do not often occur in reality. This might suggest that there is the need to create new crossings, especially in the city centre, where pedestrian traffic is or should be important.
The Dez dam was commissioned in 1963 and since sediments accumulated in the reservoir up to an elevation of approximately 15m below the intake of the power tunnel. One of the possible measures to improve operation of the reservoir is by heightening of the existing dam. This paper describes the conducted procedure for static and thermal calibration of this 203m dam in Iran based on micro geodesies measurements. Also the nonlinear response of existing dam is investigated under maximum credible earthquake ground motions considering joint behavior and mass concrete cracking and safety of dam is evaluated for possible heightening. For thermal calibration of provided numerical model, transient thermal analysis was conducted and results were compared with thermometers records installed in central block. In addition, for static calibration; thermal distribution within dam body, dam self weight, hydrostatic pressure and silt load applied on the 3D fi nite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation were considered. Results show that the distribution of stresses will be critical within dam for heightening case under seismic loads in MCL.
The paper is concerned with comparing the methods for determining the ferrite content in castings from duplex stainless steels. It uses Schaeffler diagram, empirical formula based calculation, image analysis of metallographic sample, X-ray diffraction and measurement with a feritscope. The influence of wall thickness of the casting on the ferrite content was tested too. The results of the experiments show that the casting thickness of 25 or 60 mm does not have a significant effect on the measured amount of ferrite. The image analysis of metallographic sample and the measurement with the feritscope appear to be the most suitable methods. On the contrary, predictive methods, such as Schaeffler diagram or empirical formula based calculation are only indicative and cannot replace the real measurements. X-ray diffraction seems to be the least suitable measuring method. Values of ferrite content measured in such a way often deviated from the values measured by image analysis and with feritscope.
Gala Lake National Park that has an international importance is one of the most important wetland ecosystems for Turkey. As same as many aquatic habitats, Gala Lake is under a significant anthropogenic pressure originated from agricultural activities conducted around the lake and from industrial discharges by means of Ergene River. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sediment quality of Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal by investigating some toxic element accumulations (As, B, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) from a statistical perspective. Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and Factor Analysis (FA) were applied to detected data in order to determine the associated contaminants and effective factors on the system. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) and Biological Risk Index based sediment quality guidelines (mERM-Q) applied to detected data in order to assess the ecological and biological risks of heavy metals in the ecosystem. Also Geographic Information System (GIS) technology was used to make visual explanations by presenting distribution maps of investigated elements. According to the results of PCI, significant positive correlations were recorded among the investigated toxic elements at 0.01 significance level. According to the results of FA, two factors, which were named as “Agricultural Factor” and “Industrial Factor”, explained 86.6% of the total variance. According to the results of Potential Ecological Risk Index, cadmium was found to be the highest risk factor and according to results of Biological Risk Index, nickel and chromium were found to be the highest risk factors for Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal. As a result of the present study, it was also determined that heavy metal contents in sediments of Gala Lake National Park reached to critical levels and the system is intensively under effect of agricultural and industrial originated pollution.
The objective of this research is to investigate the perception of owner – managers and their employees regarding entrepreneurial leadership. To develop the research, two questions are raised related to the similarities or differences of the perceptions of both groups with what is established in the literature and between the self – evaluation of the owner – managers and their employees on whether the former perform as an entrepreneurial leader. As a research method, both groups are asked to perform, first individual evaluations and then to match certain behaviours and the levels at which they should appear at certain levels of entrepreneurial leadership capacity. The data gathered during the investigation were processed using the Categorical Principal Components Analysis and revealed the similarities and differences between the perceptions of the owner-managers and their employees on entrepreneurial leadership. In spite of not finding significant differences between what is established in the literature and among the perceptions of the groups under study, interesting nuances stand out that, if not identified and understood, could have a negative effect on the performance of SMEs. The results of the research demonstrated the importance of the approach of behaviour and perception in the study of entrepreneurial leadership.
Studies linking the use of lean practices to company performance have been increasing as markets are becoming more competitive and companies are eager for reducing waste and therefore implementing the Lean Management (LM) philosophy to improve performance. However, results from these studies have found various and different impacts and some light is needed. Extant literature was reviewed and, to achieve the research objective, a metaanalysis of correlations was carried out. The obtained results suggest a positive relationship between some lean practices and performance measures. Furthermore, the presence of moderators influencing the relationship between lean practices and performance outcomes is highlighted in our results. To our best knowledge, this is the first research that proposes a comparison of results from primary studies on Lean implementation, by analysing the linear relationship between lean practices and enterprise performance. It fills this gap and therefore represents an important contribution.
The primary evaluation of the economic losses caused by water pollution in Shanghai in the year 2009 is made by classification approach in order to provide basis for decision of the relative water management policy. The result shows that the portion of water pollution losses in GDP of Shanghai was 2.7%, which was still lower than the average level of whole China despite of the local high population density and the scale of industry, suggesting to some extent the continuous attention in water protection paid by Shanghai government.
The study presents evaluating the effectiveness of the hearing aid fitting process in the short-term use (7 days). The evaluation method consists of a survey based on the APHAB (Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit) questionnaire. Additional criteria such as a degree of hearing loss, number of hours and days of hearing aid use as well as the user’s experience were also taken into consideration. The outcomes of the benefit obtained from the hearing aid use in various listening environments for 109 hearing aid users are presented, including a degree of their hearing loss. The research study results show that it is possible to obtain relevant and reliable information helpful in assessing the effectiveness of the shortterm (7 days) hearing aid use. The overall percentage of subjects gaining a benefit when communicating in noise is the highest of all the analyzed and the lowest in the environment with reverberation. The statistical analysis performed confirms that in the listening environments in which conversation is held, a subjective indicator determined by averaging benefits for listening situations individually is statistically significant with respect to the degree of hearing loss. Statistically significant differences depending on the degree of hearing loss are also found separately for noisy as well as reverberant environments. However, it should be remembered that this study is limited to three types of hearing loss, i.e. mild, moderate and severe. The acceptance of unpleasant sounds gets the lowest rating. It has also been observed that in the initial period of hearing aid use, the perception of unpleasant sounds has a big influence on the evaluation of hearing improvement.
The presented article points to the issues of self-consciousness and the possibilities of its development. It defines in this context also concepts of self-evaluation, self-respect, self-appreciation, self-recognition, self-confidence and self-realization. In the text, it is emphasized that self-consciousness is related to the awareness of one´s own psychophysical and social identity - I myself and the world and my place in it. An important means for the development of the healthy self-consciousness is also praise. In the conclusion of the article, attention is paid to the psycho-hygiene as prevention of the failure.
The paper presents a new ontology-based approach to the elaboration and management of evidences prepared by developers for the IT security evaluation process according to the Common Criteria standard. The evidences concern the claimed EAL (Evaluation Assurance Level) for a developed IT product or system, called TOE (Target of Evaluation), and depend on the TOE features and its development environment. Evidences should be prepared for the broad range of IT products and systems requiring assurance. The selected issues concerning the author’s elaborated ontology are discussed, such as: ontology domain and scope definition, identification of terms within the domain, identification of the hierarchy of classes and their properties, creation of instances, and an ontology validation process. This work is aimed at the development of a prototype of a knowledge base representing patterns for evidences.