The problem of research undertaken in the article concerns the adaptation of traditional models of calculating the cost of capital to the specifics of mining companies. Solutions known from the literature do not give reasonable results. This is due to the uniqueness of the activities of mining companies, in which case we are dealing with a lack of reference to the typical market situations. The aim of this article is to identify solutions that allow rational and reliable results to be obtained. One of the proposals is a modified Fama-French method. The article was tested by calculating the cost of capital in the largest Polish mining enterprises. The problem of calculation of the cost of capital is particularly important in the area of assessing the effectiveness of investment projects. The cost of capital is used as the discount rate in dynamic measures of performance, such as NPV.
Because of the value of time, investors are interested in obtaining economic benefits rather early and at a highest return. But some investing opportunities, e.g. mineral projects, require from an investor to freeze their capital for several years. In exchange for this, they expect adequate remuneration for waiting, uncertainty and possible opportunities lost. This compensation is reflected in the level of interest rate they demand. Commonly used approach of project evaluation – the discounted cash flow analysis – uses this interest rate to determine present value of future cash flows. Mining investors should worry about project’s cash flows with greater assiduousness – especially about those arising in first years of the project lifetime. Having regard to the mining industry, this technique views a mineral deposit as complete production project where the base sources of uncertainty are future levels of economic-financial and technical parameters. Some of them are more risky than others – this paper tries to split apart and weigh their importance by the example of Polish hard coal projects at the feasibility study. The work has been performed with the sensitivity analysis of the internal rate of return. Calculations were made using the ‘bare bones’ assumption (on all the equity basis, constant money, after tax, flat price and constant operating costs), which creates a good reference and starting point for comparing other investment alternatives and for future investigations. The first part introduces with the discounting issue; in the following sections the paper presents data and methods used for spinning off risk components from the feasibility-stage discount rate and, in the end, some recommendations are presented.
Taking the importance of time and risk into account has a significant impact on the value of investment projects. Investments in the energy sector are long-term projects and, as such, are burdened with uncertainty associated with the long-term freezing of capital and obtaining the expected return. In the power industry, this uncertainty is increased by factors specific to the sector, including in particular changes in the political and legal environment and the rapid technological development. In the case of discounted cash flow analysis (DCF), commonly used for assessing the economic efficiency of investments, the only parameter expressing investor uncertainty regarding investment opportunities is the discount rate, which increases with the increasing risk of the project. It determines the value of the current project, thus becoming an important criterion affecting investors’ decisions. For this reason, it is of great importance for the assessment of investment effectiveness. This rate, usually in the form of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), generally includes two elements: the cost of equity capital and borrowed capital. Due to the fluctuant relationship between these two parameters in project financing, performing a WACC analysis in order to compare the risks associated with the different technologies is not completely justified. A good solution to the problem is to use the cost of equity. This article focuses on the analysis of this cost as a measure of risk related to energy investments in the United States, Europe and worldwide.
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of the Geoeducation Center in Kielce and to define ways and stage of creating its tourist brand. It is a new tourist attraction in the Świętokrzyskie region, which also plays role of informal education. Every year, this object is visited by approximately 40,000. tourists. Research has shown that the Geoeducation Center from the beginning of its operation consistently creates all the elements that make up the brand equity: awareness, perceived quality, associations and loyalty.
The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.
The paper deals with possibilities of innovation projects financing in the Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic. It discusses, in the emphasis on SMEs, possible approaches to innovative company financing in dependence on company life cycle. Well established and functional models of innovative companies financing as FFF, Business angels, Private equity and Venture capital funding and mezzanine financing are discussed. Inasmuch SMEs are considered the key driving force of the Czech economy and the stabilizing feature of the regional development, the government places emphasis on the development of financial instruments which would ensure an ongoing financial support of innovation projects. But managements of SMEs insufficiently use all opportunities to obtain investment resources for the growth, future competitiveness and prosperity of their companies. According to researches performed in EU it was proven that financing constraints hinder innovation among SMEs. Maintaining regional balance through sustainable performance of SMEs is the common aim of municipalities as well. It is necessary for SMEs to form long-term relationships with their municipalities in the region. Programmes which arrange financial support for institutions are provided through private investors, grants, the EU funds and national budget. The paper evaluates pros and cons of various types of financial subsidies with respect to payback periods, risk exposure and availability. The paper includes the outputs of empirical research in SMEs carried out 2014 focused on steering innovation projects in SMEs. The aim of the research was to find out if SMEs can manage, evaluate and develop innovation projects. Moreover the authors examined the effectiveness of relationships established between SMEs and municipalities and problems which the SMEs are confronted by upon the ensurance of project innovation investments. The sources procurement is a very sophisticated topic and it is beneficial for the SMEs to establish a close cooperation not only with municipalities but also with universities.