The article discusses views and the ideological evolution carried out by Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, a Russian-American sociologist, philosopher and political activist. Influenced by his observations of the events of 1917, Sorokin radically reformulated his opinions about Marx and Marxism which resulted in his espousing of a traditionalist and anti-revolutionary position. He still shared with Marx his negative diagnosis of the modern world, but proposed a different solution as a remedy. His solution was a purification of the idea of equality by liberating it from reductive materialism. Nevertheless Sorokin’s concept of spiritual equality was as utopian as Marx’s. He presented his ideas in a littleknown novel titled: Предтеча (or Прачечная человеческих душ – ‘предтеча’ means ‘ancestor’ and is commonly referred to John the Baptist). This work is a signal for Sorokin’s denial of Marx’s ideas and his revolutionary zeal.
Urban social movements present themselves as an answer to de3 ciencies of local politics. In this way, they situate themselves in agreement with popular diagnoses of crisis of democracy, and propose their own model of involvement in politics. However, is this model a chance for renewal of democracy, or is it just another version of politics understood as an enlightened management? Does it have the potential for broadening the political, or does it stop halfway? Presented article is an attempt in rethinking those questions. First part compares different political languages, in which critiques of contemporary democracy are formulated. Subsequently, Jacques Rancière’s conception is presented, as emphasising egalitarian and emancipatory dimensions of democracy. Examples of rhetorics and actions of urban social movements are considered in this double context of different political languages and radical character of democracy. The problem of ‘deficient political articulation’, which makes urban social movements unable to fully keep the promises they make, is stressed.
Nonlinearities in optical fibers deteriorate system performances and become a major performancelimiting issue. This article aims to investigate the compensation of nonlinear distortions in optical communication systems based on different wavelength propagations over few-mode fiber (FMF). The study adopted Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) based on decision feedback equalizer (DFE). Various transmission wavelength of the FMF system is applied to mitigate the attenuation effect on the system. In this paper, different wavelengths (780, 850 and 1550 nm) are used in SDM. Extensive simulation is performed to assess the attenuation and Bit Error Rate (BER) in each case. The results show that the wavelength of 1550 nm produces higher power and less attenuation in the transmission. Furthermore, this wavelength produces the best distance with less BER compared to 780 nm and 850 nm wavelengths. Moreover, the validations show improvement in BER and eye diagram.
The paper presents the equalization problem of non-linear phase response of digital IIR type filters. An improved analytical method of designing a low-order equalizer is presented. The proposed approach is compared with the original method. The genetic algorithm is presented as an iterative method of optimization. The vector and matrix representation of the all-pass equalizer are shown and introduced to the algorithm. The results are compared with the analytical method. In this paper we have also proposed the use of an aging factor and setting the initial population of the genetic algorithm around the solution provided by the analytical methodology