In this article, a comparison of economic effectiveness of various heating systems dedicated to residential applications is presented: a natural gas-fueled micro-cogeneration (micro-combined heat and power – μCHP) unit based on a free-piston Stirling engine that generates additional electric energy; and three so-called classical heating systems based on: gas boiler, coal boiler, and a heat pump. Calculation includes covering the demand for electricity, which is purchased from the grid or produced in residential system. The presented analyses are partially based on an experimental investigation. The measurements of the heat pump system as well as those of the energy (electricity and heat) demand profiles in the analyzed building were conducted for a single-family house. The measurements of the μCHP unit were made using a laboratory stand prepared for simulating a variable heat demand. The overall efficiency of the μCHP was in the range of 88.6– 92.4%. The amounts of the produced/consumed energy (electricity, heat, and chemical energy of fuel) were determined. The consumption and the generation of electricity were settled on a daily basis. Operational costs of the heat pump system or coal boiler based heating system are lower comparing to the micro-cogeneration, however no support system for natural gas-based μCHP system is included.
Embedded software and dedicated hardware are vital elements of the modern world, from personal electronics to transportation, from communication to aerospace, from military to gaming, from medical systems to banking. Combinations of even minor hardware or software defects in a complex system may lead to violation of safety with or even without evident system failure. a major problem that the computing profession faces is the lack of a universal approach to unite the dissimilar viewpoints presented by computer science, with its discrete and mathematical underpinnings, and by computer engineering, which focuses on building real systems and considering spatial and material constraints of space, energy, and time. Modern embedded systems include both viewpoints: microprocessors running software and programmable electronic hardware created with an extensive use of software. The gap between science and engineering approaches is clearly visible in engineering education. This survey paper focuses on exploring the commonalities between building software and building hardware in an attempt to establish a new framework for rejuvenating computing education, specifically software engineering for dependable systems. We present here a perspective on software/hardware relationship, aviation system certification, role of software engineering education, and future directions in computing.
In this article, an engineering/physical dynamic system including losses is analyzed inrelation to the stability from an engineer’s/physicist’s point of view. Firstly, conditions for a Hamiltonian to be an energy function, time independent or not, is explained herein. To analyze stability of engineering system, Lyapunov-like energy function, called residual energy function is used. The residual function may contain, apart from external energies, negative losses as well. This function includes the sum of potential and kinetic energies, which are special forms and ready-made (weak) Lyapunov functions, and loss of energies (positive and/or negative) of a system described in different forms using tensorial variables. As the Lypunov function, residual energy function is defined as Hamiltonian energy function plus loss of energies and then associated weak and strong stability are proved through the first time-derivative of residual energy function. It is demonstrated how the stability analysis can be performed using the residual energy functions in different formulations and in generalized motion space when available. This novel approach is applied to RLC circuit, AC equivalent circuit of Gunn diode oscillator for autonomous, and a coupled (electromechanical) example for nonautonomous case. In the nonautonomous case, the stability criteria can not be proven for one type of formulation, however, it can be proven in the other type formulation.
The article covers the systematic basis for the creation of new technological processes of corn harvesting machines. Modern corn-harvesting machines have reached certain thresholds according to their technological properties that most significantly affect the final production and economic indicators of planting corn for grain efficiency, still they do not meet modern requirements. The technological properties mentioned above are hardly adjusted for wide range of physical and mechanical properties of the plants and crop parameters. This situation is caused by new machine´s working parts being viewed by researchers and developers as complex technical systems not from the standpoint of general systems theory but in terms of the use of traditional knowledge of the laws of agricultural mechanics, thus not getting proper attention to their systematic coordination with working conditions. Based on this, the paper presents a structural scheme for the system “mechanized corn for grain harvesting”, key elements of which are: agricultural (А), engineering (В) and selectional (С) supply. Interconnection of the subsystem´s elements and their consistency determine the effectiveness of the whole process. Inconsistency of the links АВ and ВC is observed. The conceptual system “mechanized corn for grain harvesting” design relates to the field with clear NO-factors: incompleteness, uncertainty, inconsistency and lack of information for decision making, thus it is important to review tasks of conceptual design from the most general constructual standpoint. The method of describing systems at the conceptual level is suggested. This systematic representation of corn-harvesting machines allows to approach the task of their workflows modeling from the most general standpoint.
The paper puts forward and implements a method of designing and creating a modelling simulation environment for extensive and complete analysis of economical lighting on highways. From a general design viewpoint, the proposed solution explores the concept of a network description language (SMOL), which has been designed to describe the necessary network functions, mechanisms, and devices for the purpose of their computer simulation and verification. The presented results of the performed research confirm the usability of intelligent lighting on highways, both in the sense of the design concept and in the aspect of saving energy.
AbstractThe stability of fractional standard and positive continuous-time linear systems with state matrices in integer and rational powers is addressed. It is shown that the fractional systems are asymptotically stable if and only if the eigenvalues of the state matrices satisfy some conditions imposed on the phases of the eigenvalues. The fractional standard systems are unstable if the state matrices have at least one positive eigenvalue.
AbstractThe classical Cayley-Hamilton theorem is extended to Drazin inverse matrices and to standard inverse matrices. It is shown that knowing the characteristic polynomial of the singular matrix or nonsingular matrix, it is possible to write the analog Cayley-Hamilton equations for Drazin inverse matrix and for standard inverse matrices.
AbstractThe Caputo-Fabrizio definition of the fractional derivative is applied to minimum energy control of fractional positive continuous- time linear systems with bounded inputs. Conditions for the reachability of standard and positive fractional linear continuous-time systems are established. The minimum energy control problem for the fractional positive linear systems with bounded inputs is formulated and solved.
AbstractThis paper describes a new method of determining the reactive power factor. The reactive power factor herein is calculated on the basis of time samples and not] with the Fourier transform of signals, like it was done previously. The new reactive power factor calculation results from the receiver admittance-operator decomposition into the product of self-adjoint and unitary operators. This is an alternative decomposition to another one, namely into a sum of the Hermitian and skew-Hemiitian operators.
AbstractThe paper presents the problem of estimating in-situ compressive strength of concrete in a comprehensive way, taking into account the possibility of direct tests of cored specimens and indirect methods of non-destructive tests: rebound hammer tests and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements. The paper approaches the discussed problem in an original, scientifically documented and exhaustive way, in particular in terms of application.
AbstractPositive descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with fractional different orders are addressed in the paper. The decomposition of the regular pencil is used to extend necessary and sufficient conditions for positivity of the descriptor fractional discrete-time linear system with different fractional orders. A method for finding the decentralized controller for the class of positive systems is proposed and its effectiveness is demonstrated on a numerical example.
AbstractThis paper describes how to calculate the number of algebraic operations necessary to implement block matrix inversion that occurs, among others, in mathematical models of modern positioning systems of mass storage devices. The inversion method of block matrices is presented as well. The presented form of general formulas describing the calculation complexity of inverted form of block matrix were prepared for three different cases of division into internal blocks. The obtained results are compared with a standard Gaussian method and the “inv” method used in Matlab. The proposed method for matrix inversion is much more effective in comparison in standard Matlab matrix inversion “inv” function (almost two times faster) and is much less numerically complex than standard Gauss method.
WILGA annual symposium on advanced photonic and electronic systems has been organized by young scientist for young scientists since two decades. It traditionally gathers around 400 young researchers and their tutors. Ph.D students and graduates present their recent achievements during well attended oral sessions. Wilga is a very good digest of Ph.D. works carried out at technical universities in electronics and photonics, as well as information sciences throughout Poland and some neighboring countries. Publishing patronage over Wilga keep Elektronika technical journal by SEP, IJET and Proceedings of SPIE. The latter world editorial series publishes annually more than 200 papers from Wilga. Wilga 2018 was the XLII edition of this meeting. The following topical tracks were distinguished: photonics, electronics, information technologies and system research. The article is a digest of some chosen works presented during Wilga 2018 symposium. WILGA 2017 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10445. WILGA 2018 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10808.
Complex structural engineering projects that involve information-gathering and decision-makingprocesses need to be approached with appropriate systems and tools. As transactional databasesare found to be insufficient for this purpose, engineers are adopting multidimensional informationsystems that have been successfully used in other areas of management, especially business.