Codeposition of antimony and tin from acidic chloride and chloride-sulfate baths was investigated. The calculations of distribution of species showed domination of neutral SnCl2 and anionic SbCl4 – complexes in chloride solution, while in the presence of sulfate ions neutral SnSO4 and cationic SbCl2+ complexes were found. Cyclic voltammetry, anodic stripping analysis and potentiostatic measurements showed that antimony deposited favorably and the reaction run under limiting control. Analysis of chronoamperometric curves suggested instantaneous nucleation of the solid phase in the chloride bath, but progressive model was more probable in the presence of sulfate ions.
The article discusses the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOC) developed in the Institute of Power Engineering as prospective key components of power-to-gas systems. The fundamentals of the solid oxide cells operated as fuel cells (SOFC – solid oxide fuel cells) and electrolysers (SOEC – solid oxide fuel cells) are given. The experimental technique used for electrochemical characterization of cells is presented. The results obtained for planar cell with anodic support are given and discussed. Based on the results, the applicability of the cells in power-to-gas systems (P2G) is evaluated.
This article presents a critical mini-review of research conducted on bioelectrochemical reactors with emphasis placed on microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells (MEC). The principle of operation and typical constructions of MFCs and MECs were presented. The types of anodes and cathodes, ion-selective membranes and microorganisms used were discussed along with their limitations.
In this study, molten salt electrorefining was used to recover indium metal from In-Sn crude metal sourced from indium tin oxide (ITO) scrap. The electrolyte used was a mixture of eutectic LiF-KF salt and InF3 initiator, melted and operated at 700°C. Voltammetric analysis was performed to optimize InF3 content in the electrolyte, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to determine the redox potentials of In metal and the electrolyte. The optimum initiator concentration was 7 wt% of InF3, at which the diffusion coefficients were saturated. The reduction potential was controlled by applying constant current densities of 5, 10, and 15 mA/cm2 using chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. In metal from the In-Sn crude melt was deposited on the cathode surface and was collected in an alumina crucible.
Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-ﬁring hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.
Azo dye wastewater treatment is urgent necessary nowadays. Electrochemical technologies commonly enable more efﬁcient degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants than biological methods, but those rely greatly on the energy consumption. A novel process of bioﬁlm coupled with electrolysis, i.e., bioelectrochemical system (BES), for methyl orange (MO) dye wastewater treatment was proposed and optimization of main inﬂuence factors was performed in this study. The results showed that BES had a positive effect on enhancement of color removal of MO wastewater and 81.9% of color removal efﬁciency was achieved at the optimum process parameters: applied voltage of 2.0 V, initial MO concentration of 20 mg/L, glucose loads of 0.5 g/L and pH of 8.0 when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was maintained at 3 d, displaying an excellent color removal performance. Importantly, a wide range of effective pH, ranging from 6 to 9, was found, thus greatly favoring the practical application of BES described here. The absence of a peak at 463 nm showed that the azo bond of MO was almost completely cleaved after degradation in BES. From these results, the proposed method of biodegradation combined with electrochemical technique can be an effective technology for dye wastewater treatment and may hopefully be also applied for treatment of other recalcitrant compounds in water and wastewater.