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Abstract

The aim of the research was the evaluation of wastewater management in terms of stability and efficiency of wastewater treatment, using statistical quality control. For this purpose, the analysis of the operation and operation of the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was made, which is one of the most important and largest sewage management facilities in the city of Cracow. This assessment was done using control charts x for 59 observations. The analysed research period covered the multi-year from 2012 to 2016. Five key pollutant indicators were used to evaluate the work of the tested object: BOD5, CODCr, total suspension, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. In the case of the majority of them, based on the analysis of control charts, full stability of their removal was found in the tested sewage management facility. The exception was total nitrogen, for which periods of disturbed stability of its disposal processes were noted. Analysis of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment showed each time that the required efficiency of reduction of the analysed pollution indicators in the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was achieved.
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Abstract

Lean mixture burning leads to a decrease in the temperature of the combustion process and it is one of the methods of limiting nitric oxide emissions. It also increases engine efficiency. An effective method to correct lean mixture combustion can be a two-stage system of stratified mixture combustion in an engine with a prechamber. This article presents the results of laboratory research on an SI engine (spark ignition) with a two-stage combustion system with a cylinder powered by gasoline and a prechamber powered by propane-butane gas LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). The results were compared to the results of research on a conventional engine with a one-stage combustion process. The test engine fuel mixture stratification method, with a two-stage combustion system in the engine with a prechamber, allowed to burn a lean mixture with an average excess air factor equal to 2.0 and thus led to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of the engine. The test engine with a conventional, single-stage combustion process allowed to properly burn air-fuel mixtures of excess air factors λ not exceeding 1.5. If the value λ > 1.5, the non-repeatability factor COVLi increases, and the engine efficiency decreases, which makes it virtually impossible for the engine to operate. The engine with a two-stage combustion process, working with λ = 2.0, the Qin/Qtot = 2.5%, reduced the NOx content in the exhaust gases to a level of about 1.14 g/kWh. This value is significantly lower than the value obtained in a conventional engine, which worked at λ = 1.3 with comparable non-repeatability of successive cycles (about 3%) and a similar indicated efficiency (about 34%), was characterised by the emissions of NOx in the exhaust equal to 26.26 g/kWh.
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