China has experienced the rapid emergence and development of private higher education in the recent decades. This article focuses on the current situation in several key areas, such as development of non-state education, globalization influence at chinse non-state education and social stratification in this sector. It shows regional diversity and random planning in private higher education and also stress situation low-income groups. Moreover it presents acquisition of labour market qualification by mentioned groups. This study concludes that proper financing and management in an urgent thing to do and in the future it will benefit from to Chinese society through multiple roles.
The paper presents the history of Czech higher education, which has a very rich tradition. Authors have taken up a number of issues in the context of crucial importance of higher education and its role in building of the intellectual capacity of the country (which has been strongly experienced by history).
This is the article about political issues in education. The aim of the text is to present the relations between politics and education. I try to find answer to question: what is the essence of politics of education? I claim that education is inherently political. Every dimension and form of educational practice are politically contested spaces. I try to show that politics in education is a very important part of democracy in education. Democracy is impossible without politics and politics is impossible without democracy. So, I focus on describing possible political areas in education. The paper presents results of these relations. I also try to convince the reader that it is possible (it is necessary) to create important, interesting thinking about education from political point of view.
The article presents the common causes (external and internal factors) for reforming the national higher education, which actively began after the proclamation of the independence of Ukraine. Strategies of state policy in the sphere of education are presented. They are aimed at overcoming the crisis of the previous socialist education system, ensuring the state's needs for highly qualified specialists and scientific research, promoting development of the society through the establishing a competitive human capital. Ways and the complexity of formation and development of the national high school during the last decade of the XX–XXI centuries of the first decade are researched. Promising development vectors in the context of European integration, socially-oriented market economy and student centered learning are highlighted.
My article is a synthetic recognition of macro-Polish governments’ evolution over 25 years of political transformation. It is presented from the perspective of education for democracy, in a democracy and not about democracy. I explain, how it is possible, that the Poles after they got rid of monistic doctrine of the totalitarian state, are subjected to hidden process of democratization of education and the school system. I analyze public education ,mechanisms and structures for its management in a way that counteracts democratic change. The school is subjected to a mechanism of political gamemakers. It becomes an institution which is painfully ineffective and without its face. This institution devastates traditions and allows intellectual regression. There are threats to educational reforms which lie not only in the sociopolitical mechanisms, but also and perhaps primarily within the education system, which has not created procedures to eliminate Pharisees of innovation from it. Polish educational system after 25 years of transformation is not only partially reprivatized but highly bureaucratic and fully involved in political parties.
The article is an attempt to answer the question if volunteering can be a way of work on yourself. Analysis of self-education and volunteering was made based on the literature and my own experience of involvement in volunteering. Successively were analyzed issues such as – the decision to work on ourselves, goal setting, action planning, activity and self-auditing and auto-correction.
In the text the author makes a critical assessment of legal solutions regulating the education of teachers in Poland. In the realms of argument, he refers to his own experiences as a member of the Polish Accreditation Committee. The presentation of those experiences reveals areas of omissions, irregularities, and even pathologies in the process of conferring teaching qualifications on graduates of schools of higher education. The author derives the sources of the status quo from imperfections or contradictions in the documents regulating the same areas of education, as well as from the struggle of schools of higher education to survive in the market, leading to a dramatic reduction in the quality of education. The text ends in demands for necessary modifications of the standards of teacher education and changes in legislation.
The article outlines the conceptual assumptions of pedagogy underlying university education, re-defined with regard to the dynamic conditions underlying contemporary culture. The authors concentrate on constitutive educational forms that define the nature of semiosis in education, as well as their exposure and transformation. In connection with this, there is a focus on the concept of “symbolic politics”, which aims to liberalize the practice of pedagogy, freeing it from the dictatorship of a transmission form of education, as well as creating conditions for strengthening discursive relationships and a reflexive discursive attitude. As a result of the implementation of this form of symbolic politics, those involved in education do not promote the prevailing discourse but become agents capable of discursive reflection in action as well as participants in processes of discursive design and creation.
In this article I make a critical analysis of educational policy in Poland during the 25 years of the political transformation. I try to refer to the Polish thoughts and practices of teaching experience in the period of 1989–2014. What is more, I present experiences of anti-socialist opposition during the socialist period. They influenced on impression in the works and commitments of many scientists and a new generation of academics. Furthermore, I indicate how my generation after 1989 went into the road of scientific autonomy and / or independence in the field of government and private education. Benchmark for these analyzes build up the hopes which we tied up with the Polish revolution of non- violence. Moreover, there was a strong disappointment, which revealed over the years due to the departure of distinctive political formation of the Third Republic of the ideals and the phenomenon of Polish „Solidarity” movement, and civil society, which included the move away from the base of participatory democracy. Finally, I look at how education as a science and practice of education fit into democratization of the Polish state and society. The key meaning for me has the perception of education as a common good, as environments and entities, institutions or management practices which participate in the democratic society. To sum up, this society is constantly in the period of recovery from years of experience not only fascist, but Bolshevik totalitarianism, too.
In this article I present the main assumptions and discuss issues of pedagogy as a science and the field of education during a special meeting of the Committee of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. I focus on the institutional leaders in science teaching who are rectors and deans of Faculties of Education in Poland. Moreover, they are co-authors of relevant teaching and research solutions in science teaching. In the age of growing crisis in the academic community we can, as educators, discuss how no to be to be surprised by pathogenic processes and events, but how to be able to counteract them. Furthermore, how to show representatives of other academic disciplines and structures of learning, how to deal with common to us problems.
My aim in this paper is to problematize assumptions that underlie civic education as it is practiced in polish schools. The main object of my criticism is the absence of axiological dimension in the social studies curriculum. This absence is construed in the context of present social and political realities, such as: the growth of right wing populist parties, the popularity of nationalist ideas and practices among the younger generation, the presence of hate speech in the public sphere and the growing wave of chauvinism and xenophobia. In this context, the main thesis of this paper is that pupils and students need to be provided with a symbolic universe founded on radical values such as justice, equality and solidarity. Those values could be a base for political identities alternative to the essentialist, and exclusionary identity offered by the modern right wing populism.
The paper considers the technique of modeling and formation educational components of the planned training of CDIO Syllabus, realized in the form of the educational adaptive environment of engineering education. The following key concepts of the methodology have been accepted: competence models of the stages of the CDIO initiative, the method of project training, syntax for describing the concepts of the domain, models for mapping support concepts in the form of expressions of knowledge and ontological engineering.
This article reflects some trends and challenges in Germany in connection to immigration. The need of educational and scientific discussion and reflection of migration-specific themes are dictated by the contemporary reality requirements of almost all European countries. Change in society, associated primarily with the processes of immigration, affects the processes and systems of goal-countries, especially the education system.
The paper deals with different approaches used in engineering education. It analyses concepts of engineering curricula, methods of education and technical means used. The main dilemma is represented by “teacher oriented” and “student oriented” concept of engineering education.
The article discusses two works devoted to the women's education and upbringing, written in two different eras. Both books – the treaty by a Spanish secular humanist Juan Luis Vives (1492–1540) De institutione feminae christianae (Bruges 1524) dedicated to the Queen of England, Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, and her daughter Mary Tudor, and reference guide for women by a Spanish Jesuit Jorge Loring (1921–2013) Para salvarte. Compendio de las verdades fundamentales de la religión católica y normas para vivirlas (1st ed. 1952) – are advisory in nature. Both authors in a similar way define the role of women in a society. Formulating the recommendations for good Christian women, the authors resort to almost identical argumentation derived from the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers. They use similar rhetorical devices which are tailored to the current circumstances. Both authors refer to the same authority and show the same examples. The analysis of both works aims to show the immutability of rhetorical practices in the field of advice literature devoted to women.
The paper focuses on the social education of younger students, which I see as an important area of activity that enables a better understanding of oneself, others and the world. However, this can only be achieved if social topics include issues arising from the needs of individuals and social expectations and if expository methods of teaching are replaced by a reflective problem approach. & en “the different one” will cease to be perceived as inferior, dangerous, marked by stereotypes, and will seem interesting, worth knowing, and the world will become a space for the child to explore and discover in order to know it better and act in it more skillfully. The paper is a study report. The starting point for discussion are two conceptual categories of “the inactive bystander effect” and “the active bystander effect” taken from the Heroic Imagination Project by Philip Zimbardo, which I illustrate with the results of ethnomethodological studies conducted among 7–9-year old children during their classes about social issues. The research objective is to reconstruct the features of social knowledge and the process of its acquiring in the classroom. The paper includes a theoretical part that explains the idea and nature of social education with the emphasis on so-called new thematic areas resulting from the needs of individuals and social expectations. Then the paper describes the concept of the studies. The next section presents the research outcomes and highlights several areas of analysis, including lesson topics on social education, methods of their implementation, and the social importance that is revealed during communication practices. The final part contains research conclusions and summarizing reflections.
The article considers the main trends of development of the Russian system of teacher education in the 21st century, translated documents on the basis of which there were changes in the education system.
The aim of the article is to discuss the issue of academic revolution in India. Particularly since the globalization, this revolotion is marked by transformation unprecedented in scope and diversity and education particularly higher education is profoundly influenced by the new order. However, it remains unfinished task due adequate statutory support of the government. In Indian context the national aspirations, to establish knowledge society in the context of increasing globalization, is based on the assumption that higher and technical education essentially empower people with requisite competitive skills and knowledge. The emerging trends demonstrate consumer driven approach to enhance marginal capital gains in educational investment. The higher education being a powerful tool to build knowledge based society and also a critical input underlying sustainable development has received a significant attention nowadays.
In the definition of civic competences which is situated in the Annex to Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 Decem-ber 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning – Key Competences for Life-long Learning – a European Reference Framework it is written: “Full respect for human rights including equality as a basis for democracy, appreciation and understanding of differences between value systems of different religious or ethnic groups lay the foundations for a positive attitude”. Therefore, the question is: Does school education in general premise developing attitudes based on val-ues essential to democracy? The answers to this question can be searched con-ducting various studies. The paper presents the results of analysis of the core curricula conducted by a team of researchers from the Department of School Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (Poland). Why core curricula have become the object of our research? Basically, for two reasons. Firstly, the school has obligated to implement them, and all school programs and textbooks have to be consistent with them. Second-ly, they are also a kind of articulation and a declaration of competence required from people in the given place and time.
The article deals with issues concerning the pedagogical aims of studying traditional humanities in present realities of Polish society, which at the end of the 20th century overthrew communism. The new political and civilization conditions have caused major social changes that require a new approach to the humanities. Meanwhile, in Poland there is still a traditional and conservative cult of national identity and heritage, which prevents the development of an open society based on cultural tolerance and understanding of the differences that separate us from the West and other cultures. Humanities should be an academic tool for shaping an individual and creative personality and not for preserving national cultural and historical mythology. Such social pedagogy leads to a closed society oriented towards the past and not towards modernity. An educational policy that promotes this attitude treats cultural heritage as a tool of political control over society. In our times, humanities consist in discovering and interpreting the world around us and in forming an independent thinking. Literature, philosophy and other liberal arts cannot be just a sterile studying of a dead tradition.
Embedded software and dedicated hardware are vital elements of the modern world, from personal electronics to transportation, from communication to aerospace, from military to gaming, from medical systems to banking. Combinations of even minor hardware or software defects in a complex system may lead to violation of safety with or even without evident system failure. a major problem that the computing profession faces is the lack of a universal approach to unite the dissimilar viewpoints presented by computer science, with its discrete and mathematical underpinnings, and by computer engineering, which focuses on building real systems and considering spatial and material constraints of space, energy, and time. Modern embedded systems include both viewpoints: microprocessors running software and programmable electronic hardware created with an extensive use of software. The gap between science and engineering approaches is clearly visible in engineering education. This survey paper focuses on exploring the commonalities between building software and building hardware in an attempt to establish a new framework for rejuvenating computing education, specifically software engineering for dependable systems. We present here a perspective on software/hardware relationship, aviation system certification, role of software engineering education, and future directions in computing.
B a c k g r o u n d: The digital rectal examination (DRE) is a part of the standard physical examination and a useful diagnostic tool for detecting various lower gastrointestinal tract abnormalities. However nowadays it has been observed that medical students might not be properly prepared for performing and interpreting of DRE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and experience of Polish medical students about DRE. Ma t e r i a l a n d M e t h o d s: A prospective study was carried out using a questionnaire accessible via internet platform. The survey consisted of 12 questions and considered experience as well as practical and theoretical knowledge about DRE. 976 responses from nine Polish medical universities were included in the study. R e s u l t s: 38.68% of students have never performed DRE with “lack of opportunity during courses” (71.09%) as the most common reason. Among responders who performed this examination only 12.72% had done it more than two times. Usefulness of DRE was mostly assessed as high and very high (55.63%). Students in the self-assessment part indicated low and very low (18.72% and 39.61%) technical abilities and also low (25.34%) interpretation skills. C on c l u s i o n: The knowledge of Polish medical students about DRE is insuffi cient. Medical universities should pay particular attention to this fi eld of examination to improve theoretical as well as practical skills of future doctors.
Aesthetic Costs of Spatial Chaos. The most characteristic process of settlement’s development in Poland after 1989, is chaotic dispersion of the buildings, usually around cities, but also along the routes, tourist sites and agricultural areas. The result of this pressure is the fragmentation and the increasing isolation of the landscape ecological systems. These processes have also consequences in the degradation of aesthetic values of the landscape. This report shows the consequences of these processes and condemns the most important tasks that should be taken to repair the quality of the landscape. It is estimated that over 60% of the Polish population lives in the conflict countryside, undergoing pressure of spatial disorder, with reduced or degraded of compositional and aesthetic values. The disintegration of the landscape style and the place identity has also appeared in this areas. In the cities grows the visual aggression of advertising billboards. These phenomena are increasingly negatively assessed by the society. Improvement of spatial order and landscape aesthetics requires fundamental changes in the system of spatial planning, transfer of modern knowledge about the landscape systems to local governments and spatial planning staff, as well as a long-term, consistent work of the society.It is necessary to establish a new way of thinking and learning about the landscape systems. The development and dissemination of methods and techniques of GIS, opens up a new possibilities for diagnosing the physiognomy of the landscape. A methods of assessing the physiognomic structure of landscape as well as methods of design the composition of landscape interiors and scenic panoramas are developed. Since 2015, the landscape audit procedure is implemented. The National Landscape Policy, as well as a common landscape education should be developed, conducted in parallel to the already well-developed environmental policy and education.
In 2015 Supreme Audit Office published the report concerned the quality of doctoral studies in Poland. Result of the conducted audit is alarming: “there are serious doubts both about quality and effectiveness of mass doctoral education” (SAO 2015). The text presents an overview of university regulations concerned the evaluation of annual achievements of PhD students (in the area of social sciences) and indicates its potentially negative consequences for the quality of their academic activity. The article refers to two terms – “running for points” and “parametric game”– introduced by Emanuel Kulczycki to describe consequences of economization of research evaluation system, i.e. measuring academic activities and turning them into points-based rewards.
Following the 19th-century language debates on the language of science and higher education, this paper follows three Polish texts from the middle of the century dealing with the Galician school and university system. These dispositives of language discourse, defined here as an outcome of the transformations at the nexus of hegemony, linguistic theories and the remainders of the Republic of Letters ideology, are analysed concerning the positioning of the Polish language as confronted with German and Ruthenian/Ukrainian, as well as the political implications resulting from the perceived misbalance. Given the political context of Habsburg neoabsolutism’s hierarchical understanding of languages and its application, the authors deal with both deconstructing the underlying ideology concerning German, and sustain it regarding Ruthenian