This article sheds light on the advent of online platforms and the way it is reshaping urban enviroment, breaking down traditional axes of both social interaction and commercial power, shifting the structure of traditional services. The platform revolution is radically transforming an array of many functional cities’ areas, like transportation, accommodations and personal services. Thus current concerns as strong urbanization, industrialization and world population growth, enable sharing economy firms to flourish as a reaction against the frictions of urban life exploiting such exacerbation, in order to fulfill demand for appropriate services. After a critical analysis of these issues, the article deepens innovative transportation services, moving on to illustrate the Italian rulemaking process as a chance to provide a solution to the ongoing problem of striking the right balance between competing priorities, such as market access and preservation of sustainable mobility. It suggests to reflect upon the best approach able to face the complexity of urban transport systems, in order to break in a new culture for urban mobility, comply to EU legislation too.
In the paper the topic of Building Information Technology BIM is investigated. It is new in Polish circumstances technology for construction and for building product industry, which contribute to change and develop level of industrialization. Especially challenge raising from the information and introducing IT technology into daily practice is considered to provide changes in construction branch of economy. In Poland there is the hot need of start to introduce BIM as the common technology for owners of assets, facility management, construction entities, design offices, administration officers and many other players relative to construction data and processes. BIM technology introduction, basing on foreign case studies, results in cost savings, control and time reduction of investment processes and some more advantages. The perspective of digital buildings, digital infrastructure, digital roads, digital railways and digital cities is outlined at the perspective of technology challenge, but simply transfiguration of many fields of personal everyday life, where digitalization is already present and with the question when it will be common in professional activity, particularly in civil engineering.
This paper makes a contribution to food research and studies of mobility through analyzing food exchange in a translocal context. Furthermore, by focusing on Muslim women’s practices in the North Caucasus it also contributes to gender studies of post-socialism, which, for the most part, are based on the ﬁeld material from the non-Muslim part of the Russian population. Anthropologists have viewed social changes through the lens of various food items or consumption patterns. I argue that adding a mobility aspect to the research centered on food can help us discover social changes and practices that may otherwise remain unnoticed. I will show that studying the dynamics of food circulation and human mobility may serve as a good starting point towards the broader study of societies. Thus, by taking people originating from the Shiri village in Daghestan as an example, I look into channels of food sharing to analyze the nature of reproduction of social relations within communities and the cultural entanglements created by the circulation of goods. Furthermore, the analysis of their vernacular practices reveals the existence of informal exchange networks, in particular the ones secured by and for women. Through these networks, food and favors are exchanged, and social bonds and feelings of obligation are created and preserved. Further analysis also reveals social changes connected with mountain abandonment, in particular the growing awareness of the weakening of tukhum (lineage) and village ties. These dynamics reﬂect recent changes in the Daghestani society that are connected with increased mobility and the processes of (re)islamization.
The paper shows the impact of despatialization on processes of territorial development. The essence of despatialization is the decreasing importance of the spatial factor in the information society, as a result of the use of information and computer technologies, and in particular – the Internet. It creates new challenges for spatial management. Real contact between people and organizations is often replaced with links and information flows, the quality of which is growing and which in many cases eliminate the resistance that spatial distance makes. The multiple effects of this phenomenon modify social relations, at the same time being challenges, but also opportunities to create new tools for managing development policy.
The transition to a zero-carbon economy is the inclusive growth story of the twenty-first century. It needs to be managed with effective and cohesive policies, whilst recognizing that sustainable development, inclusive growth and climate action are interwoven and mutually supportive.
The paper presents a synthesis of approaches to development and functioning of Functional Urban Areas. The authors present typology of such areas and determine how they facilitate the flow of various types of potentials, paying particular attention to creativity and innovations. The emphasis is put particularly on non-spatial factors of development of such areas. The process of forming the functional area basing on common strategy of development founded on various types of potentials is presented on two examples.
Circular economy – a new approach in the understanding of the human–environment relationship. The work presented the assumptions of the circular economy as a new concept of the economy functioning with the method of production “from cradle to cradle” constituting the opposition to the commonly used linear economy approach (take, make, dispose). Work discussed also the impact on the quality of human life and the management of environmental resources. Functional assumptions of the circular economy and its territorial dimension were presented, especially in urban areas where the green economy and sharing economy mechanisms are used. The potential for economic growth and the creation of new jobs was also emphasized due to the implementation of circular economy in the EU countries.
In the constant pursue of the sustainability of socio-industrial systems, the definition of useful, reliable and informative, and at the same time simple and transparent, indicators is an important step for the evaluation of the circularity of the assessed systems. In the circular economy (CE) context, scientific literature has already identified the lack of overarching indicators (social, urban, prevention-oriented, etc.), pointing out that mono-dimensional indicators are not able to grasp the complexity of the systemic, closed-loop, feedback features of CE. In this respect, Emergy accounting is one of the approaches that have been identified as holding the potential to capture both resource generation and product delivery dimensions and therefore to provide an enhanced systems’ evaluation in a CE perspective. Because of Emergy’s intrinsic definition and its calculation structure, Emergy-based indicators conceptually lend themselves very well to the evaluation and monitoring of circular processes. Additionally, Emergy has the unique feature of enabling the evaluation of systems that are not necessarily only technosphere systems, but also of technological systems which embed nature (techno-ecological systems). The present paper gives a perspective on a set of Emergy-based indicators that we have identified as suitable to evaluate circular systems, and outlines the different perspective compared to the circularity indicators defined in the “Circularity Indicators Project” launched by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.
Gospodarka odpadami komunalnymi jest od wielu lat obszarem szczególnego zainteresowania Komisji Europejskiej (KE). W 2018 r. KE wskazała zagadnienia związane z gospodarką odpadami komunalnymi jako ważny element ram monitorowania procesu transformacji w kierunku gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ), stanowiącej obecnie priorytet polityki gospodarczej Unii Europejskiej (UE). W przedstawionych ramach monitorowania określono 10 wskaźników GOZ wśród których kwestie związane odpadami komunalnymi pojawiają się bezpośrednio w dwóch obszarach GOZ – w obszarze produkcji oraz w obszarze gospodarki odpadami, oraz pośrednio – w obszarach surowców wtórnych oraz konkurencyjnościi innowacji. W pracy przedstawiono zmiany w zakresie zarządzania gospodarką odpadami komunalnymi w Polsce w kontekście wdrażania założeń GOZ, omówiono wyniki osiągniętych wskaźników GOZ w dwóch wybranych obszarach ram monitorowania GOZ w Polsce (produkcja i gospodarka odpadami), oraz porównano osiągnięte wyniki na tle innych krajów europejskich. W Polsce zadania w zakresie realizacji gospodarki odpadami komunalnymi od 1 lipca 2013 r. należą do obowiązków gminy, która jest odpowiedzialna za zapewnienie warunków funkcjonowania systemu selektywnego zbierania i odbierania odpadów komunalnych od mieszkańców oraz za budowę, utrzymanie i eksploatację regionalnych instalacji do przetwarzania odpadów komunalnych (RIPOK). Gmina jest przy tym zobowiązana do prawidłowego gospodarowania odpadami komunalnymi, w myśl europejskiej hierarchii postępowania z odpadami, której nadrzędnym celem jest zapobieganie ich powstawaniu oraz ograniczanie ilości, następnie recykling i inne formy unieszkodliwiania, spalanie i bezpieczne składowanie. W pracy analizowano zmiany wartości dwóch wybranych wskaźników GOZ, tj. (1) wskaźnika wytwarzania odpadów komunalnych, w obszarze produkcja oraz (2) wskaźnika recyklingu odpadów komunalnych w obszarze gospodarki odpadami. W tym celu wykorzystano dane statystyczne Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego (GUS) oraz Eurostat. Przedstawiono dane od roku 2014, tj. od momentu zainicjowania konieczności przechodzenia na GOZ w UE. W ostatnich latach obserwuje się wzrost ilości wywarzonych odpadów komunalnych w Polsce, jak i w UE. Zgodnie z danymi Eurostat ilość wytworzonych odpadów komunalnych w przeliczeniu na jednego mieszkańca Polski wzrosła z 272 kg w 2014 r. do 315 kg w 2017 r. Warto przy tym podkreślić iż średnia ilość wytworzonych odpadów komunalnych w Polsce w 2017 r. była jedną z najniższych w UE, przy średniej europejskiej 486 kg/osobę. Przy czym Polska osiągnęła niższe poziomy recyklingu odpadów komunalnych (33,9%) niż średnia europejska (46%). Przyczyną gorszych wyników Polski w zakresie recyklingu może być m.in. brak wystarczająco rozwiniętej infrastruktury służącej przetwarzaniu odpadów komunalnych, funkcjonującej w innych państwach takich jak Niemcy czy Dania, oraz zdecydowanie wyższej świadomości społeczeństwa dotyczącej problematyki odpadów komunalnych w krajach rozwiniętych. Gospodarka odpadami komunalnymi w Polsce stoi przed szeregiem wyzwań w aspekcie wdrażania GOZ, przede wszystkim w zakresie osiągnięcia narzuconych przez KE wartości recyklingu, do minimum 55% do 2025 r.
The aim of this study was to analyze diesel fuel consumption in Poland and identification of the causes of changes in the needs of individual sectors of the economy for this type of fuel. Time range of the researches covered from 2004 to 2014. Data from the Central Statistical Office (CSO) were the source material. In the years 2004-2014 diesel consumption in Poland was 111 553 thousand tons. In 2014 domestic consumption of diesel fuel was 11 203 thousand tons and it was more than 2 times higher than the level of consumption of this fuel in 2004. The highest consumption of diesel in Poland in the period took place in 2012. The increase in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland had benefited from increased demand for diesel in transport, which became a result of an increased amount of transport services. The share of transport in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland for the period 2004- 2014 was about 75%. Another area, which consumes the largest quantity of DF in Poland is agriculture. Consumption of this fuel in agriculture in the years 2004- 2014 increased by 7%. DF consumption in industry and the manufacturing sector it was variable. DF biggest consumption in these sectors of the economy in the period was recorded in 2004. The analyzes did not allow to identify the specific causes of changes in the use of DF in the industry and manufacturing. In transport it showed a relationship between the consumption of diesel fuel and the amount of transport work and the transported cargo.
Spatial Structures of Financial Transfers to the Budgets of Municipalities in Poland in 2007-2015. The purpose of the submitted paper was to analyse and assess the budgetary income of local self-government units in Poland. The scope of the study was focused on the main categories of revenue being transferred from the state budget to municipal budgets, which were significantly influencing the financing of public tasks at the local level. On the basis of the conducted research it can be stated that the increase of the income of municipalities due to participation in personal income tax, which significantly influenced the incomes of municipalities, should be considered as particularly important. This phenomenon was undoubtedly the result of the influence of many economic, social, legal and administrative factors. It was particularly related to the increase in the income of citizens and indirectly to the improvement of the income situation of enterprises. The observed general increase in the part of incomes of the municipalities acquired as a share of the state budget revenues was also an important positive reflection of a number of significant changes introduced in the period of socio-economic transition in Poland.
The Dilemmas of the Kaliningrad Oblast Today. The Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea neighbouring with the EU countries of Poland and Lithuania. On one hand, the Oblast belongs to the Russian political, economic and defence area, and on the other, it is separated from other parts of the Russian Federation. This specific location affects the nature of the local economy, the dependence on import and a drive towards cooperating with countries abroad. The economic situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast is strictly related to the economic situation of the remaining parts of Russia. Kaliningrad is subject to principles established by the federal centre, and Moscow decides about the most important issues of the region. At the same time, the Oblast makes efforts to provide conditions for social and economic development comparable to the development standards of neighbouring countries. The residents of the Oblast can be characterised by a sense of own identity, their openness to Europe, as well as activeness and entrepreneurship as compared to other Russian citizens. The greatest number of military units in Russia cluster in Kaliningrad Oblast. This potential is continually strengthened with the progressing modernisation of Russian military forces. Small border traffic, initiated in July 21 between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the RF, had a major impact on the animation, volume and the dynamics of cross-border relations and the promotion of Poland. In July 2016, the Polish side suspended the project.
We consider the Debreu private ownership economy in which all consumption plans belong to a proper linear subspace of the commodity-price space ℝl. This geometric property of consumption sets means that there is a dependency between quantities of some commodities in all consumption plans. Competitive mechanism makes producers adjust their plans of action to the same dependency. It results in the mild evolution of the production sector to offer production plans which are also contained in the given subspace of ℝl. Modified production system and the initial consumption system can form an economy in equilibrium. The aim of this paper is to model gentle changes of producers’ activity that give equilibrium in the Debreu economy with consumption system reduced to a proper subspace of ℝl without considering additional costs.
Autor uważa, że każda jednoznaczna ocena filozofii Marksa jest nieprzekonująca, ponieważ zaciera istotne różnice w obrębie jego myśli. Choć Marks stworzył jedną filozofię, sprawiającą wrażenie jednolitej tkaniny, jest ona spleciona z wątków naukowych i nienaukowych. Wątek naukowy wiąże się z pojęciami niestabilności kapitalizmu, wyzysku proletariatu i alienacji człowieka. Wątek nienaukowy wiąże się z pojęciami dialektyki, gospodarki towarowej i komunizmu. Pierwszy wątek jest poważny i przekonujący, drugi fantastyczny i arbitralny.
The concept of endogenous development assumes the use of specifi c resources of the region, difficult to copy, to its development, and even to gain a competitive advantage in a wider dimension. This concept has been used in the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for smart specialization (RIS3), especially in relation to leading smart specialization the quality of life, in the areas of: production and processing of ecological, regional and traditional food; renewable energy and distributed energy; agrotourism and ecotourism. It was targeted at the development of the entire region, not only the leading urban centers. The special role of the food economy lies in the need to guarantee food security and food sovereignty in the region. This issue is of strategic importance.
The contemporary world is marked by clear disproportions in terms of living, working and wage. This problem also applies to Poland, including the layout designated by cities. The quantitative analysis carried out proves that the identified disproportions in the development potential have a relatively permanent character, which gives them structural attribute. In this context, the desirable effectiveness of development policy (subordinate to the vision and funds of EU cohesion policy) becomes highly questionable. Today’s economic inclusion is a serious challenge to the failure of recognized development policies. The shaping of the socio-economic order of the state requires a new look at local development, starting from a reliable diagnosis, part of which is this study, to bold and real visions.
For development of the knowledge-based economy, potential and quality of university education are an important factors to increase a competitiveness of local, regional, national and international scales. To shape the modern economy, the development of university education and studies corresponding with contemporary socio-economic challenges play an important role. As a result, the formation of scientific and academic centres, which are the basic elements of knowledge-based of economy, determines the improvement of the human resources quality and the increase in innovativeness of spatial systems on various scales. The author has discussed the issue of changes in university education in Poland and its role in socio-economic activation of regional systems, and also defined the structure of major studies in regional (voivodship) systems. This paper research has initiated wider investigations which aim will be to answer to what extent the actual university education structure corresponds to contemporary and future socio-economic needs and competences. this level of education in Poland has to face with the growing globalization processes and increasing spatial competitiveness, not only in a regional scale, but also in the national and international ones, and actual reforms of Polish education and science system.
The article presents current methods used for the recovery of metals from used electronic equipment. The analysis of the composition and structure of the material was made on the example of one of the most popular and widespread e-waste – used cell phones. The article was address the problems of processing and separation of individual components included in these heterogeneous wastes. The main purpose of the conducted research was to prepare the tested material in such a way that the recovery of metals in the further stages of its processing was as effective as possible.The results of attempts to separate individual material fractions with magnetic, pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods will be presented. An analysis of the possibilities of managing electronic waste in terms of the circular economy will be made.
We estimated a structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model describing the links between a banking sector and a real economy. We proposed a new method to verify robustness of impulse-response functions to the ordering of variables in an SVAR model. This method applies permutations of orderings of variables and uses the Cholesky decomposition of the error covariance matrix to identify parameters. Impulse response functions are computed and combined for all permutations. We explored the method in practice by analyzing the macro-financial linkages in the Polish economy. Our results indicate that the combined impulse response functions are more uncertain than those from a single model specification with a given ordering of variables, but some findings remain robust. It is evident that macroeconomic aggregate shocks and interest rate shocks have a significant impact on banking variables.
Expenditures Related to Technical Infrastructure. The aim of the study is to answer to the question what is the economic (financial) scale of expenditure and local investments related to the technical infrastructure and to what extent the investment processes are correlated with the planning coverage. The study is based on data used in the annual reports of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences on the state of planning work in communes. A detailed analysis of municipal budget expenditures was carried out, demonstrating large diversity of water and sewerage services, road construction and renovation, investment expenditures, etc. The research showed that a significant part of the investment is located outside local plans based on the decision on building conditions. This creates a serious risk of irrationality of spatial management and leads to increase of infrastructure service costs.
For the private and public sector in any particular country it is crucial to know, which industries may exhibit comparative advantages, that for some reasons are not realized. This can efficiently help all current and potential actors to improve their economic strategy both at the micro- and macroeconomic level. In this paper we propose an approach of forecasting comparative advantages dynamics in foreign trade. The instrument is based on relative price differences and is efficient for countries in the process of economic liberalization. An empirical analysis based on the example of Central and East European countries confirms a good performance in the sense of predictive power of this instrument. On the example of Russia, experiencing a period of economic liberalization and with the prospect to join the WTO agreements, we demonstrate which sectors are most likely to contain comparative advantages in the near future.
The paper considers a private ownership economy in which economic agents could realize their aims at given prices, Walras Law is satisfied but agents’ optimal plans of action do not lead to an equilibrium in the economy. It means that the market clearing condition is not satisfied for agents’ optimal plans of action. In this context, the paper puts forward three specific adjustment processes resulting in equilibrium in a transformation of the initial economy. Specifically, it is shown, by the use of strict mathematical reasoning, that if there is no equilibrium in a private ownership economy at given prices, then, under some natural economic assumptions, after a mild evolution of the production sector, equilibrium at unchanged prices can be achieved.
This paper investigates the life cycle profiles of income and consumption and relative income mobility in Poland – a transition economy facing rapid structural economic and social changes. According to my results, and in line with the empirical evidence for advanced economies, the age-profiles of average income and consumption in Poland exhibit a hump. The inequality of income over the life cycle is found to flatten relatively quickly in Poland, which contrasts with the approximately linear shape observed in the US. When individual income process is fitted to match the Polish inequality profile, it exhibits less persistence than in the US. Past earnings turn out to affect current income more strongly for the group of more educated individuals. Moreover, and in contrast to the permanent income hypothesis as well as findings for other economies, no evidence of an increase in consumption inequality for households older than 30 years is found. Finally, the obtained estimates of relative income mobility in Poland are higher than those for developed countries.
Wales is one from five selected European regions, which (looking at statistical analysis), develop in an extraordinary way in comparison to others. The purpose of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Wales’s development path as well as to indicate problems with which the region has still struggle. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. Based on this, conclusions and recommendations for the institutions involved in implementation of regional policy in Polish voivodeships have been formulated.
Artykuł omawia mało znane fakty z życia dwóch wielkich przedstawicieli Srebrnego Wieku filozofii rosyjskiej – Mikołaja Bierdiajewa i Sergiusza Bułgakowa – odnoszące się do okresu, kiedy obaj byli zagorzałymi marksistami. Był to początek kariery naukowej obu myślicieli, czasy przełomu XIX i XX wieku. W archiwum Karola i Luizy Kautskich w Amsterdamie (International Institute of Social History) znajdują się dwa listy Bierdiajewa do Kautskiego odnośnie do polemiki na temat Marksa i marksizmu, jaka pojawiła się między nimi po decyzji Kautskiego o publikacji na łamach „Die Neue Zeit” artykułu Bierdiajewa F.A. Lange i filozofia krytyczna w jej relacji do socjalizmu (1900). Korespondencja najpewniej stała się katalizatorem przejścia Bierdiajewa od marksizmu „ortodoksyjnego” do „krytycznego”. Z kolei listy Bułgakowa do Kautskiego (oraz jego małżonki Heleny Tokmakowej do Luizy Kautskiej) odnoszą się do czasu stażu naukowego Bułgakowa w Berlinie w latach 1898–1900. Spotykał się wtedy z rodzinami Kautskich i Bernsteinów, rozważał teoretyczne problemy marksizmu. Do tekstu wystąpienia dołączamy przetłumaczone na język polski i zaopatrzone w komentarze dwa listy Bierdiajewa do Kautskiego (luty i maj 1900).