The aim of this study was to establish reference values for 2D and M-mode measurements in Dachshunds. Basic echocardiographic data, including M-mode, 2D and spectral Doppler measurements, was collected, analyzed and compared between 41 healthy Dachshunds and 50 other healthy dogs of similar weight. Echocardiographic reference intervals were prepared for Dachshunds. Dachshunds had a smaller left ventricular diameter in diastole and systole and a thicker septum than other dog breeds. Male Dachshunds had larger diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameter than females. Reference intervals for 2D and M-mode measurements in healthy Dachshunds differ from other dogs of similar weight and should be used for this breed to assess chamber enlargement.
The aim of this study was to obtain reference values for diastolic cardiac function parameters in healthy dogs and to ascertain if significant differences exist between dogs of various age, weight and sex. The study was performed on 82 healthy dogs of different age and breed. Eleven param- eters were analyzed: peak velocity during early diastolic filling, acceleration time of early diastol- ic filling, deceleration time of early diastolic filling, total time of early diastolic filling, peak veloc- ity during late diastolic filling, acceleration time of late diastolic filling, deceleration time of late diastolic filling, total time of late diastolic filling, total time of early and late diastolic filling, ratio of peak velocities during early and late diastolic filling, isovolumetric relaxation time. The Dop- pler measurements used for general assessment of diastolic function in healthy dogs were signifi- cantly influenced by body weight, heart rate and age. No significant differences were found be- tween males and females. This study described the value of non-invasive echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in healthy dogs.
B a c k g r o u n d: A novel paradigm of diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) proposed the induction of coronary microvascular dysfunction by HFpEF comorbidities via a systemic pro-infl ammatory state and associated oxidative stress. Th e consequent nitric oxide deficiency would increase diastolic tension and favor fi brosis of adjacent myocardium, which implies not only left ventricular (LV), but all-chamber myocardial stiff ening. Our aim was to assess relations between low-grade chronic systemic infl ammation and left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relations in real-world HFpEF patients. Me t h o d s: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 60 clinically stable HpEFF patients in sinus rhythm with assayed high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) during the index hospitalization. Subjects with CRP >10 mg/L or coexistent diseases, including coronary artery disease, were excluded. LV and LA diameters and mitral E/E’ ratio (an index of LA pressure) were extracted from routine echocardiographic 46 Cyrus M. Sani, Elahn P.L. Pogue, et al. records. A surrogate measure of LA stiff ness was computed as the averaged mitral E/e’ ratio divided by LA diameter. R e s u l t s: With ascending CRP tertiles, we observed trends for elevated mitral E/e’ ratio (p <0.001), increased relative LV wall thickness (p = 0.01) and higher NYHA functional class (p = 0.02). Th e LA stiffness estimate and log-transformed CRP levels (log-CRP) were interrelated (r = 0.38, p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, the LA stiff ness index was independently associated with log-CRP (β ± SEM: 0.21 ± 0.07, p = 0.007) and age (β ± SEM: 0.16 ± 0.07, p = 0.03), which was maintained upon adjustment for LV mass index and relative LV wall thickness. C o n c l u s i o n s: Low-grade chronic infl ammation may contribute to LA stiff ening additively to age and regardless of the magnitude of associated LV hypertrophy and concentricity. LA stiff ening can exacerbate symptoms of congestion in HFpEF jointly with LV remodeling.