Given its high efficiency, low emissions and multiple fuelling options, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) offer a promising alternative for stationary power generators, especially while engaged in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) units. Despite the fact that the fuel cells are a key component in such power systems, other auxiliaries of the system can play a critical role and therefore require a significant attention. Since SOFC uses a ceramic material as an electrolyte, the high operating temperature (typically of the order of 700–900°C) is required to achieve sufficient performance. For that reason both the fuel and the oxidant have to be preheated before entering the SOFC stack. Hot gases exiting the fuel cell stack transport substantial amount of energy which has to be partly recovered for preheating streams entering the stack and for heating purposes. Effective thermal integration of the μ-CHP can be achieved only when proper technical measures are used. The ability of efficiently preheating the streams of oxidant and fuel relies on heat exchangers which are present in all possible configurations of power system with solid oxide fuel cells. In this work a compact, fin plate heat exchanger operating in the high temperature regime was under consideration. Dynamic model was proposed for investigation of its performance under the transitional states of the fuel cell system. Heat exchanger was simulated using commercial modeling software. The model includes key geometrical and functional parameters. The working conditions of the power unit with SOFC vary due to the several factors, such as load changes, heating and cooling procedures of the stack and others. These issues affect parameters of the incoming streams to the heat exchanger. The mathematical model of the heat exchanger is based on a set of equations which are simultaneously solved in the iterative process. It enables to define conditions in the outlets of both the hot and the cold sides. Additionally, model can be used for simulating the stand-alone heat exchanger or for investigations of a semiadiabatic unit located in the hotbox of the μ-CHP unit.
This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V) correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC) was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values of the fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.
The process of wheel - rail interaction is largely determined by dynamic properties of the car, improvement of which is possible by improving design of the bogie and its basic elements. The article analyses and discusses the problems that have arisen in recent years in the course of operation of bogie 18-100. Tribological and mechanical properties of a friction wedge-type oscillation damper are studied.