Geomechnical model testing has been widely applied as a kind of research technique in underground engineering problems. However, during the practical application process, due to the influence of many factors, the desired results cannot be obtained. In order to solve this problem, based on the measurement requirements of the model test, combined with FBG(Fiber Bragg Grating) sensor technology and traditional measurement methods, an FBG monitoring system, Micro-multi-point displacement test system, resistance strain test system and surrounding rock pressure monitoring system are developed. Applying the systems to a model test of the tunnel construction process, the displacement in advance laws of tunnel face, radial displacement distribution laws and surrounding rock pressure laws are obtained. Test results show that a multivariate information monitoring system has the advantage of high precision, stability and strong anti-jamming capability. It lays a solid foundation for the real-time data monitoring of the tunnel construction process model test.
Modern regulations concerning railway bridges are based on the approach of structural dynamics, which is described in PN-EN standards. This paper presents the results of theoretical dynamic analysis of the HSLM-A train set loading on the structure of a pre-stressed concrete arch bridge - the first railway bridge of its type which was built in Poland (completed in 1959). The recommendations of PN-EN have been followed and modal analysis was carried out to define the sensitivity of the structure to chosen eigenforms. Additionally the paper presents a course of calculations and the conclusions obtained from the analysis of displacements, accelerations, and bending moments induced in the structure through a simulated passage of a high-speed train in the context of the requirements of PN-EN Standards. The conclusions from the current calculations can be used for dynamic analysis of bridges of similar structural solutions.
Control of the technological processes of coal enrichment takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. Thus, one of the basic tasks of the coal enrichment process control systems is the stabilization of coal quality parameters at a preset level. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. The tuning of the controller parameters is no less important in the control process . Many methods of tuning the controller use the dynamic characteristics of the controlled process (dynamic model of the controlled object). Based on many studies it was found that the dynamics of many processes of coal enrichment can be represented by a dynamic model with properties of the inertial element with a time delay. The identification of object parameters (including the time constant) in industrial conditions is usually performed during normal operation (with the influence of disturbances) from this reason, determined parameters of the dynamic model may differ from the parameters of the actual process. The control system with controller parameters tuned on the basis of such a model may not satisfy the assumed control quality requirements. In the paper, the analysis of the influence of changes in object model parameters in the course of the controlled value has been carried out. Research on the controller settings calculated according to parameters T and τ were carried out on objects with other parameter values. In the studies, a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning the PI controller for the coal enrichment processes control systems characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay has been presented. Considerations are performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of set point. The assessment of considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality have been implemented.
The problem of mathematical modelling and indication of properties of a DIP has been investigated in this paper. The aim of this work is to aggregate the knowledge on a DIP modelling using the Euler-Lagrange formalism in the presence of external forces and friction. To indicate the main properties important for simulation, model parameters identification and control system synthesis, analytical and numerical tools have been used. The investigated properties include stability of equilibrium points, a chaos of dynamics and non-minimum phase behaviour around an upper position. The presented results refer to the model of a physical (constructed) DIP system.
This paper presents a robust model free controller (RMFC) for a class of uncertain continuous-time single-input single-output (SISO) minimum-phase nonaffine-in-control systems. Firstly, the existence of an unknown dynamic inversion controller that can achieve control objectives is demonstrated. Afterwards, a fast approximator is designed to estimate as best as possible this dynamic inversion controller. The proposed robust model free controller is an equivalent realization of the designed fast approximator. The perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem are used to analyze the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The performance of the developped controller are verified experimentally in the position control of a pneumatic actuator system.
This paper researches the application of grey system theory in cost forecasting of the coal mine. The grey model (GM(1.1)) is widely used in forecasting in business and industrial systems with advantages of minimal data, a short time and little fluctuation. Also, the model fits exponentially with increasing data more precisely than other prediction techniques. However, the traditional GM(1.1) model suffers from the poor anti-interference ability. Aimed at the flaws of the conventional GM(1.1) model, this paper proposes a novel dynamic forecasting model with the theory of background value optimization and Fourier-series residual error correction based on the traditional GM(1.1) model. The new model applies the golden segmentation optimization method to optimize the background value and Fourier-series theory to extract periodic information in the grey forecasting model for correcting the residual error. In the proposed dynamic model, the newest data is gradually added while the oldest is removed from the original data sequence. To test the new model’s forecasting performance, it was applied to the prediction of unit costs in coal mining, and the results show that the prediction accuracy is improved compared with other grey forecasting models. The new model gives a MAPE & C value of 0.14% and 0.02, respectively, compared to 1.75% and 0.37 respectively for the traditional GM(1.1) model. Thus, the new GM(1.1) model proposed in this paper, with advantages of practical application and high accuracy, provides a new method for cost forecasting in coal mining, and then help decision makers to make more scientific decisions for the mining operation.
An on-line optimising control strategy involving a two level extended Kalman filter (EKF) for dynamic model identification and a functional conjugate gradient method for determining optimal operating condition is proposed and applied to a biochemical reactor. The optimiser incorporates the identified model and determines the optimal operating condition while maximising the process performance. This strategy is computationally advantageous as it involves separate estimation of states and process parameters in reduced dimensions. In addition to assisting on-line dynamic optimisation, the estimated time varying uncertain process parameter information can also be useful for continuous monitoring of the process. This strategy ensures that the biochemical reactor is operated at the optimal operation while taking care of the disturbances that are encountered during operation. The simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of the two level EKF assisted dynamic optimizer for on-line optimising control of uncertain nonlinear biochemical systems.
The paper presents a simulation model of the hybrid magnetic bearing dedicated to simulations of transient state. The proposed field-circuit model is composed of two components. The first part constitutes a set of ordinary differential equations that describes electrical circuits and mechanics. The second part of the simulation model consists of parameters such as magnetic forces, dynamic inductances and velocity-induced voltages obtained from the 3D finite element analysis. The MATLAB/Simulnik softwarewas used to implement the simulation model with the required control system. The proposed field-circuit model was validated by comparison of time responses with the prototype of the hybrid magnetic bearing.
The possibility of distinguishing and assessing the influences of defects in particular pump elements by registering vibration signals at characteristic points of the pump body would be a valuable way for obtaining diagnostic information. An effective tool facilitating this task could be a well designed and identified dynamic model of the pump. When applied for a specific type of the pump, such model could additionally help to improve its construction. This paper presents model of axial piston positive displacement pump worked out by the authors. After taking the simplifying assumptions and dividing the pump into three sets of elements, it was possible to build a discrete dynamic model with 13 degrees of freedom. According to the authors' intention, the developed dynamic model of the multi-piston pump should be used for damage simulation in its individual elements. By gradual change in values of selected construction parameters of the object (for example: stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients), it is possible to perform simulation of wear in the pump. Initial verification of performance of the created model was done to examine the effect of abrasive wear on the swash plate surface. The phase trajectory runs estimated at characteristics points of the pump body were used as a useful tool to determine wear of pump elements.
The paper presents a model for dynamic analysis of belt transmission. A two dimensional discrete model was assumed of a belt consisting of rigid bodies joined by translational and torsion spring-damping elements. In the model, both a contact model and a dry friction model including creep were taken into consideration for belt-pulley interaction. A model with stiffness and damping between the contacting surfaces was used to describe the contact phenomenon, whereas a simplified model of friction was assumed. Motion of the transmission is triggered under the influence of torque loads applied on the pulleys. Equations of motion of separate elements of the belt and pulleys were solved numerically by using adaptive stepsize integration methods. Calculation results are presented of the reaction forces acting on the belt as well as contact and friction forces between the belt body and pulley in the sample of the belt transmission. These were obtained under the influence of the assumed drive and resistance torques.