Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop which is attacked heavily by insect pests leading to reduction of yield and quality of the fruits. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of methomyl (a common insecticide) used mainly on tomato fruits. LC-MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method were used for the determination of methomyl. The results showed that the recovery using matrix-matched standards ranged from 87.8 to 101.3%, with relative standard deviation of 2.5 to 7.5%. Kinetics equation, Log R = log R0 – 0.434 Kt, was used to calculate the rate of degradation in tomato, soil and water. Residue half-life calculated using kinetic rate ranged from 1.95 to 1.63 days in tomato and soil, respectively. From the results it was concluded that tomato fruits can be safely harvested for consumption after 15 days of application based on estimated preharvest interval (PHI). It is advisable to re-estimate the PHI regularly owing to data from the EU and Codex.
This paper presents the research studies carried out on the application of lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). The Navier-Stokes equation-based solver faces the difficulty of computational efficiency when it has to satisfy the high-order of accuracy and spectral resolution. LBM shows its capabilities in direct and indirect noise computations with superior space-time resolution. The combination of LBM with turbulence models also work very well for practical engineering machinery noise. The hybrid LBM decouples the discretization of physical space from the discretization of moment space, resulting in flexible mesh and adjustable time-marching. Moreover, new solving strategies and acoustic models are developed to further promote the application of LBM to CAA.
The aim of this paper is to show that a real order generalization of the dissipative concepts is a useful tool to determine the stability (in the Lyapunov and in the input-output sense) and to design control strategies not only for fractional order non-linear systems, but also for systems composed of integer and fractional order subsystems (mixed-order systems). In particular, the fractional control of integer order system (e.g. PIλ control) can be formalized. The key point is that the gradations of dissipativeness, passivity and positive realness concepts are related among them. Passivating systems is used as a strategy to stabilize them, which is studied in the non-adaptive as well as in the adaptive case.