In the study a new proposal of convective velocity determination necessary for eddy size determination from the dissipative range in a turbulent flow in a mixer was made. The proposed quantity depends on all the mean and fluctuating velocity components. By applying convective velocity one may determine the distribution of time and linear Taylor microscale in a stirred vessel.
Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop which is attacked heavily by insect pests leading to reduction of yield and quality of the fruits. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of methomyl (a common insecticide) used mainly on tomato fruits. LC-MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method were used for the determination of methomyl. The results showed that the recovery using matrix-matched standards ranged from 87.8 to 101.3%, with relative standard deviation of 2.5 to 7.5%. Kinetics equation, Log R = log R0 – 0.434 Kt, was used to calculate the rate of degradation in tomato, soil and water. Residue half-life calculated using kinetic rate ranged from 1.95 to 1.63 days in tomato and soil, respectively. From the results it was concluded that tomato fruits can be safely harvested for consumption after 15 days of application based on estimated preharvest interval (PHI). It is advisable to re-estimate the PHI regularly owing to data from the EU and Codex.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a simulation method at mesoscopic scales that bridges the gap between molecular dynamics and continuum hydrodynamics. It can simulate efficiently complex liquids and dense suspensions using only a few thousands of virtual particles and at speed-up factors of more than one hundred thousands compared to Molecular Dynamics. Lowes approach provides a powerful alternative to the usual DPD integrating schemes. Here, we demonstrate the details and potential of Lowes scheme. We compute viscosity, diffusivity and Schmidt number values and we present comparison of wormlike chain models under shear with experimental and Brownian Dynamics results for ll-phage DNA.
Recently, there has been research on high frequency dissipative mufflers. However, research on shape optimization of hybrid mufflers that reduce broadband noise within a constrained space is sparse. In this paper, a hybrid muffler composed of a dissipative muffler and a reactive muffler within a constrained space is assessed. Using the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, a coupling wave equation for the perforated dissipative chamber is simplified into a four-pole matrix form. To efficiently find the optimal shape within a constrained space, a four-pole matrix system used to evaluate the acoustical performance of the sound transmission loss (STL) is evaluated using a genetic algorithm (GA). A numerical case for eliminating a broadband venting noise is also introduced. To verify the reliability of a GA optimization, optimal noise abatements for two pure tones (500 Hz and 800 Hz) are exemplified. Before the GA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical models has been checked using experimental data. Results indicate that the maximal STL is precisely located at the desired target tone. The optimal result of case studies for eliminating broadband noise also reveals that the overall sound power level (SWL) of the hybrid muffler can be reduced from 138.9 dB(A) to 84.5 dB(A), which is superior to other mufflers (a one-chamber dissipative and a one-chamber reactive muffler). Consequently, a successful approach used for the optimal design of the hybrid mufflers within a constrained space has been demonstrated.
This paper presents the research studies carried out on the application of lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). The Navier-Stokes equation-based solver faces the difficulty of computational efficiency when it has to satisfy the high-order of accuracy and spectral resolution. LBM shows its capabilities in direct and indirect noise computations with superior space-time resolution. The combination of LBM with turbulence models also work very well for practical engineering machinery noise. The hybrid LBM decouples the discretization of physical space from the discretization of moment space, resulting in flexible mesh and adjustable time-marching. Moreover, new solving strategies and acoustic models are developed to further promote the application of LBM to CAA.