In this paper, we establish variation of constant formulas for both Caputo and Riemann- Liouville fractional difference equations. The main technique is the Z -transform. As an application, we prove a lower bound on the separation between two different solutions of a class of nonlinear scalar fractional difference equations.
This paper compares numerical solutions of transient two-dimensional unsaturated flow equation by using different averaging schemes for internodal conductivities. Averaging methods such as arithmetic mean, geometric mean, upstream weighting, and integrated mean are taken into account, as well as a recent approach based on steady-state approximation. The latter method proved the most flexible, producing relatively accurate solutions for both downward and upward flow cases.