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Number of results: 27
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Abstract

Two types of names for ‘Turkish delight’ are known in the Slavic languages: rahat-lokum ~ ratluk, and lokum. Even though most etymological dictionaries derive them from the same Arabo-Turkish etymon, their different structures are not discussed and the phonetic differences not explained. The aim of this paper is to establish the relative chronology of changes made to the original phrase, as well as to point out some problems which still remain more or less obscure.
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Abstract

The article deals with the question of linguistic interference among Slavic languages at the example of Choroszczynka, a bilingual village in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship. The presentation of two complete questionnaires for the Slavic Linguistic Atlas (OLA), Polish and Ukrainian, not only makes it possible to capture grammatical and lexical peculiarities of both sets assigned to individual dialects, but also reveals carelessness of the fi eldworkers who collected the data. This, in turn, contributed to such an interpretation of dialectal data presented in OLA maps which does not refl ect linguistic reality.
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Abstract

A revision of the standard approach to characterization of thin-semiconductor-layer Hall samples has been proposed. Our results show that simple checking of I(V) curve linearity at room temperature might be insufficient for correct determination of bias conditions of a sample before measurements of Hall effect. It is caused by the nonlinear behaviour of electrical contact layers, which should be treated together with the tested layer a priori as a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. Our approach was examined with a Be-doped p-type InAs epitaxial layer, with four gold contacts. Despite using full high-quality photolithography a significant asymmetry in maximum differential resistance (Rd) values and positions relative to zero voltage (or current) value was observed for different contacts. This suggests that such characterization should be performed before each high-precision magneto-transport measurement in order to optimize the bias conditions.
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Abstract

This paper has two parts to it. The fi rst part is about the presence and possible impact of Hindi and Polish as foreign words in the contemporary English language. This is measured via the proposed tool of CRAC (Cumulative Average Relative Count). The research is done on the basis of the British National Corpus (2001, 2007) and Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2004, 2009). The focus is laid on the overriding heuristic metaphor LANGUAGE LAWS are PHYSICAL LAWS, where laws of lexical assimilation are viewed as analogous to physical laws of gravity. The second part marks the transition from a theoretical-descriptive perspective into a more practical, intercultural dimension. It is about translation of foreign proper names from the viewpoint of legal (certifi ed) translation. This is a signifi cant issue as many foreign words are actually proper names in English. This part relates then to specifi c controversies and proposed solutions concerning translation of Polish and Hindi proper foreign names in view of the presence and absence of their diacritic forms in English. The framework for adoption of the argument are institutionally established standards of certifi ed translation practice in Poland.
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Abstract

The purpose of the paper is the attempt to point one of the most important aspects of the cultural contact of the Poland and Arabic countries with the consideration of the historical perspective. The author assumes that the language is the basic carrier of such contacts and also the main area of the mutual influences. Therefore, she discusses the Arabic and Polish relations mostly on the level of the translation of the literary and scientific output of both sides, as well as the linguistic interference mainly in the aspect of the lexical borrowings. The author quotes many examples of such linguistic contacts and underlines their great meaning in the existence and development of other types of relations: political, commercial, and cultural.
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Abstract

This article proposes that the ’imāla phenomenon was an innovation in the Najd region. The non-’imāla form was the traditional form because it is the vowel production in the available Ancient North Arabian data. The article will separate the use of ’imāla as an assimilatory vowel from the Najdi non-assimilatory production by analyzing the testimonial data in the traditional books of grammar. Finally, the article will use the available genealogical literature to establish an approximate chronology for the innovation and to justify the spread of the innovation among the pre-Islamic tribes.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of processes aimed at production of nanostructures with the use of oil emulsions in water. The appropriate molecular models of water and oil, as well as the model of the substance which would sediment at the water – oil interface, are looked for. Such substance, after suitable solidification, would become the main component of the produced material. For the described simulations, the Molecular Dynamics method has been used throughout this paper.
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Abstract

This paper presents a methodology for contact detection between convex quadric surfaces using its implicit equations. With some small modifications in the equations, one can model superellipsoids, superhyperboloids of one or two sheets and supertoroids. This methodology is to be implemented on a multibody dynamics code, in order to simulate the interpenetration between mechanical systems, particularly, the simulation of collisions with motor vehicles and other road users, such as cars, motorcycles and pedestrians. The contact detection of two bodies is formulated as a convex nonlinear constrained optimization problem that is solved using two methods, an Interior Point method (IP) and a Sequential Quadratic Programming method (SQP), coded in MATLAB and FORTRAN environment, respectively. The objective function to be minimized is the distance between both surfaces. The design constraints are the implicit superquadrics surfaces equations and operations between its normal vectors and the distance itself. The contact points or the points that minimize the distance between the surfaces are the design variables. Computational efficiency can be improved by using Bounding Volumes in contact detection pre-steps. First one approximate the geometry using spheres, and then Oriented Bounding Boxes (OBB). Results show that the optimization technique suits for the accurate contact detection between objects modelled by implicit superquadric equations.
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Abstract

The production process of prosthetic restorations runs in two stages. In the first stage, the prosthetic foundation is produced of metal alloys. In the second stage, a facing material is applied on the produced element. In both stages, the wettability is significantly important, as well as the free surface energy relating to it. The quality of the obtained cast depends on the surface phenomena occurring between the metal alloy and the material of which the casting mould is made. The performed examinations also point to a relation between the ceramics joint and the base, depending on the wetting angle. The aim of the presented paper was to examine influence of the composition of a Ti(C,N)-type coating on bases made of the Ni-Cr prosthetic alloy on the wettability and the surface free energy. The test material were disks made of the Ni-Cr alloy with the diameter of 8 mm. The disks were divided into five groups, which were covered with Ti(C,N) coatings, with different amounts of C and N in the layer. In order to determine the surface free energy (����), the wetting angle was measured. Two measure liquids were applied: distilled water and diiodomethane. The obtained results of the measurements of the water-wetting angles suggest that together with the increase of the ratio of nitrogen to carbon in the Ti(C,N) coating, the surface hydrophobicity increases as well. In all the samples, one can see a large difference between the energy values of the polar and the apolar components. The high values of the polar components and the low values of the apolar ones make it possible to conclude that these surfaces exhibit a greater affinity to the polar groups than to the apolar ones. On the basis of the analysis of the surface free energy, one can state that covering the alloy with Ti(C,N)-type coatings should not decrease the adhesion of the ceramics to the alloy, whereas TiC coatings should lead to the latter’s improvement. Due to their hydrophilicity, TiC coatings should decrease the adhesion of bacteria to the surface and hinder the formation of a bacterial biofilm.
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Abstract

A newly published monograph by Vladimir Cvetkovski (Cvetkovski 2017) has given rise to a short examination of some Turkish loanwords in Bitola Macedonian, partially in comparison with the classic treatment of the topic presented by Olivera Jašar-Nasteva a few years ago (Ja{ar-Nasteva 2001). Besides, some methodological remarks and, fi rst of all, a rule concerning treatment of sonorants in assimilation processes in Macedonian (see bilbil) are suggested in the study.
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Abstract

The question of what is the difference between borrowing and code-switching has attracted the attention of scholars far and wide and gave at the same time rise to a plethora of publications in order to draw a boundary between these two terms. In the most recent of these publications (Grosjean 1982, Poplack & Meechan 1995 & 1998; to name but a few), it has been often argued that borrowings are donor-language items that are integrated in the grammar of the recipient language at a community level, while code-switches take place at individual level and they retain the grammar of the language from which they derive. However, the current political and economic uncertainties in various regions of the world have been found to cause mass refugee movements to conflict-free places, where contact between newcomers and locals usually lead to some kind of linguistic interinfluencing. The current study discusses the contactinduced German-origin lone lexical items used by Iraqi-Arabic-speaking refugees in Germany. It is the aim of this study to show whether or not these lexical items can be considered as code-switches or established borrowings. The data I am analyzing come from spontaneous and elicited conversations of the first and second wave of Iraqi- Arabic-speaking refugees and asylum seekers to Germany as well as from online- and paper-pencil-questionnaires.
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Abstract

In this study, variations in the contact resistance of electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers with Fe content were investigated. The contact resistance of electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers that were subject to thermal aging at 260°C in the atmosphere, tended to increase significantly with an increase in the Fe content. Through an analysis method employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Ni oxides, such as NiO and Ni2O3, on the surface of the thermally aged electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers were observed. It is believed that the Ni oxide existing on the surface diffused from the underlying electroplated Ni layers to the surface through the grain boundaries in the electroplated Au-Fe layers during the thermal aging. As the Fe content in the electroplated Au-Fe layers increased, the grain size decreased. As the grain size decreases, more Ni oxide was detected on the surface. Therefore, with a rise in the Fe content, more Ni diffuses to the surface via grain boundaries, and more Ni oxide is formed on the surface of the electroplated Au-Fe layers, increasing the contact resistance of the electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers.
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Abstract

In this work studies of barrier height local values are presented. Distribution of the gate-oxide EBG(x, y) and semiconductor-oxide EBS(x, y) barrier height local values have been determined using the photoelectric measurement methods. Two methods were used to obtain the local values of the barrier heights: modified Powell-Berglund method and modified Fowler method. Both methods were modified in such a way as to allow determination of the EBG(x, y) and EBS(x, y) distribution over the gate area using a focused UV light beam of a small diameter d = 0.3 mm. Measurements have been made on a series of Al-SiO2-Si(n+) MOS structures with semitransparent (tAl = 35 nm) square aluminum gate (1 x 1 mm2). It has been found that the EBG(x, y) distribution has a characteristic dome-like shape, with highest values at the center of the gate, lower at the gate edges and still lower at gate corners. On the contrary, the EBS(x, y) distribution is of a random character. Also, in this paper, both barrier height measurements have been compared with the photoelectric effective contact potential difference fMS(x, y) measurements. These results show good agreement between distribution of the barrier heights EBG(x, y) and EBS(x, y) measurements and independently determined shape of the effective contact potential difference fMS(x, y) distribution.
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Abstract

In the present work, a tire model is derived based on geometrically exact shells. The discretization is done with the help of isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements. The interpolation is performed with bilinear Lagrangian polynomials for the midsurface as well as for the director field. As time stepping method for the resulting differential algebraic equation a backward differentiation formula is chosen. A multilayer material model for geometrically exact shells is introduced, to describe the anisotropic behavior of the tire material. To handle the interaction with a rigid road surface, a unilateral frictional contact formulation is introduced. Therein a special surface to surface contact element is developed, which rebuilds the shape of the tire.
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Abstract

This paper presents technological trials aimed at producing Ag-W, Ag-WC, Ag-W-C and Ag-WC-C composite contact materials and characterizing their properties. These materials were obtained using two methods, i.e. press-sinter-repress (PSR) at the refractory phase content of less than 30% by weight as well as press-sinter-infiltration (PSI) at the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight). The results of research into both the physical and electrical properties of the outcome composites were shown. They include the analysis of the influence of the refractory phase content (W or WC) on arc erosion and contact resistance changes for the following current range: 6 kAmax in the case of composites with a low refractory phase content, 10 kAmax in the case of composites with the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight.
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Abstract

An alternative FEM algorithm of fi nding piston ring pressure distribution to a contact simulation is introduced. The method is basing on an analytical determining of required nodal displacement boundary conditions. Its several confi gurations are tested using APDL and compared to a no-separation contact simulation of a simple 2D fi nite element model of a two-stroke piston ring made of Titanium alloy. Each of the methods tested in the paper brings displacement result and Huber-Misses equivalent stresses close to each other. However, only one of those brings resulting contact pressure close to a no-separation contact simulation. Nonetheless, the obtained confi guration occurred to be less computationally effi cient than no- separation contact simulation performed in an ANSYS software.
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Abstract

Constantly increasing prevalence of allergic diseases determines the attempts to elaborate the therapeutic strategies activating immune tolerance to particular allergen. Our current research focuses on the antigen-specifi c action of CD8+ suppressor T (Ts) lymphocytes induced in mice by intravenous administration of a high dose of haptenated syngeneic erythrocytes. While the regulatory activity of Ts cells mediated by exosome-delivered miRNA-150 is well defi ned, the mechanism of their induction remained unclear. Th erefore, the current studies investigated the immune eff ects induced in mice by intravenous administration of contact allergens coupled to syngeneic erythrocytes. In mouse models of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin, we have shown that intravenous administration of hapten-coupled erythrocytes failed to induce CHS effector cells. Moreover, hapten-induced CHS reaction occurred to be suppressed in mice intravenously administered with syngeneic erythrocytes coupled with protein allergen. Finally, we have demonstrated that intravenously administered allergen induces immune tolerance only when bound to syngeneic erythrocytes, proving that intravenously delivered allergens are deprived of their immunizing properties when coupled with membrane of self cells. Altogether, our current studies suggest that alteration of self cell membrane by allergen binding is enough to induce Ts cell-mediated immune tolerance to nonpathogenic agents, which express a great translational potential in such conditions as allergies and hypersensitivity-related autoimmune disorders.
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Abstract

The pool boiling characteristics of dilute dispersions of alumina, zirconia and silica nanoparticles in water were studied. These dispersions are known as nanofluids. Consistently with other nanofluid studies, it was found that a significant enhancement in Critical Heat Flux (CHF) can be achieved at modest nanoparticle concentrations (<0.1% by volume). Buildup of a porous layer of nanoparticles on the heater surface occurred during nucleate boiling. This layer significantly improves the surface wettability, as shown by a reduction of the static contact angle on the nanofluid-boiled surfaces compared with the pure-water-boiled surfaces. CHF theories support the nexus between CHF enhancement and surface wettability changes. This represents a first important step towards identification of a plausible mechanism for boiling CHF enhancement in nanofluids.
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Abstract

The paper presents a model for dynamic analysis of belt transmission. A two dimensional discrete model was assumed of a belt consisting of rigid bodies joined by translational and torsion spring-damping elements. In the model, both a contact model and a dry friction model including creep were taken into consideration for belt-pulley interaction. A model with stiffness and damping between the contacting surfaces was used to describe the contact phenomenon, whereas a simplified model of friction was assumed. Motion of the transmission is triggered under the influence of torque loads applied on the pulleys. Equations of motion of separate elements of the belt and pulleys were solved numerically by using adaptive stepsize integration methods. Calculation results are presented of the reaction forces acting on the belt as well as contact and friction forces between the belt body and pulley in the sample of the belt transmission. These were obtained under the influence of the assumed drive and resistance torques.
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Abstract

To explore the basic principles of hierarchical materials designed from nanoscale and up, we have been studying the mechanics of robust and releasable adhesion nanostructures of gecko [1]. On the question of robust adhesion, we have introduced a fractal-like hierarchical hair model to show that structural hierarchy allows the work of adhesion to be exponentially enhanced as the level of structural hierarchy is increased. We show that the nanometer length scale plays an essential role in the bottom-up design and, baring fracture of hairs themselves, a hierarchical hair system can be designed from nanoscale and up to achieve flaw tolerant adhesion at any length scales. For releasable adhesion, we show that elastic anisotropy leads to orientation-dependent adhesion strength. Finite element calculations revealed that a strongly anisotropic attachment pad in contact with a rigid substrate exhibits essentially two levels of adhesion strength depending on the direction of pulling.
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Abstract

This paper presents the construction of adequate 3-D computer models for simulation research and analysis of dynamic aspects of caliper disc brakes, as well as of drum brakes, actuated by a short stroke electromagnet or a hydraulic thruster, when these brake types are used in the hoisting mechanism of cranes. The adequacy of the 3-D models has been confirmed by comparing their simulation results with results from an experiment and from classic computational models. The classic computational models, related to the study of main dynamic features of friction brakes, are layouts that are based on a number of assumptions, such as that the braking force instantly reaches its steady-state value, the clearance between the friction lining and the disc/drum is neglected, etc. These assumptions lead to a limitation of research options. The proposed 3-D computer models improve the research layouts by eliminating a number of the classic model assumptions. The improvements are related to the determination of the braking time, braking torque, normal force and other dynamic aspects of the brakes by performing simulations that take into account: the braking force as a function of time, the presence of clearance between the friction lining and the disc/drum, etc.
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