Effects of confinement on mechanical, structural and thermodynamic properties of uniform fluids are very well understood. In contrast, a general theory based on statistical thermodynamics for confined nonuniform and non-isotropic phases, such as the lamellar phase, is in its infancy. In this review we focus on the lamellar phase confined in a slit or in a pipe in order to illustrate various effects of confinement. We limit ourselves to the results obtained by M. Tasinkevych, V. Babin and the author for lamellar phases in oil-water-surfactant mixtures within a generic semi-microscopic model, using a mean-field approximation. We show that compared to isotropic fluids the excess grand potential contains additional terms associated with structural deformations. These terms depend on the type of the confining walls, the shape of the container and on the thickness of the lamella. As a result of the dependence of the structure of the confined lamellar phase on the shape of the container, capillary lamellarization and capillary delamellarization is found in slits and in pipes respectively.
With reference to the situation experienced in several Polish collieries where the risk of occurrence of gas-geodynamic phenomena is increasing and decisions to start the mining activities need to take numerous constraints associated with previous mining into account, this paper addresses certain geo-mechanical aspects of longwall mining in the zones of excavation edge interactions giving rise to major changes in the conditions of the deposit and rock strata, as a consequence of previous mining operations in adjacent coalbeds. Starting from the analytical description of displacements and stresses in the proximity of longwall mining systems, the paper summarizes the results of model tests and investiga-tions of the influence that the excavation edge has on the behavior and structural continuity of a portion of the coal body in the coalbed beneath or above an old excavation. Based on selected nonlinear functions emulating the presence of edges in the rock strata, a comparative study is carried out by investigating two opposite directions of workface advance, from the gob area towards the coal body and from the coal body towards the gobs. The discussion of the results relies on the analysis of roof deformation and the concentration factor of the vertical stress component at the workface front.
PCFs (Photonic Crystal Fibers) with ‘T’ – shaped core have been proposed in this paper. ‘T’ –shaped core PCF structures have been analyzed using two different background materials: silica and lead silicate. A total of 3600 rotation at an interval of 900 has been introduced in the design of PCF structures. PCF structures A, B, C and D with rotation of 00, 900, 1800 and 2700 have silica as wafer. Similarly PCF structures E, F, G and H with similar rotation have lead silicate as background material. Numerical investigations shows structures ‘D’, ‘F’, ‘G’ and ‘H’ to have anomalous dispersion. PCF structures ‘F’, ‘G’, and ‘H’ have reported birefringence of the order of 10-2. Besides, other PCF structures report birefringence of the order of 10-3. Ultra low confinement loss has been observed in all the investigated PCF structures. Moreover, splice loss observed by the structure is very low. Large mode area has been shown by all the designed PCF structures.