It is meaningful to study the issues of CO migration and its concentration distribution in a blind gallery to provide a basis for CO monitoring and calculation of fume-drainage time, which is of a great significance to prevent fume-poisoning accidents and improve efficiency of an excavation cycle. Based on a theoretical analysis of a differential change of CO mass concentration and the CO dispersion model in a fixed site, this paper presents several blasting fume monitoring test experiments, carried out with the test location to the head LP in arrange of 40-140 m. Studies have been done by arranging multiple sensors in the arch cross-section of the blind gallery, located at the Guilaizhuang Gold Mine, Shandong Province, China. The findings indicate that CO concentrations in the axial directions are quadratic functions with the Y and Z coordinate values of the cross-section of the blind gallery in an ascending stage of CO time- -concentration curve, with the maximum CO concentrations in Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. Also, the gradients of CO concentration in the gallery are symmetrical with the Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. In the descending stage of CO time-concentration curve, gradients of CO concentration decrease in lateral sides and increase in the middle, then gradually decrease at last. The rules of CO concentration distribution in the cross-section are that airflow triggers the turbulent change of the CO distribution volume concentration and make the CO volume concentration even gradually in the fixed position of the gallery. Moreover, the CO volume concentrations decrease gradually, as well as volume concentration gradients in the cross-section. The uniformity coefficients of CO concentration with duct airflow velocities of 12.5 m/s, 17.7 m/s and 23.2 m/s reach near 0.9 at 100-140 m from the heading to the monitoring spot. The theoretical model of a one-dimensional migration law of CO basically coincides with the negative exponential decay, which is verified via fitting. The average effective turbulent diffusion coefficient of CO in the blind gallery is approximate to 0.108 m2/s. There are strong linear relationships between CO initial concentration, CO peak concentrations and mass of explosive agent, which indicates that the CO initial concentration and the CO peak concentration can be predicted, based on the given range of the charging mass. The above findings can provide reliable references to the selection, installation of CO sensors and prediction of the fume-drainage time after blasting.
The aim of the research conducted in a 2-year pot experiment in an unheated plastic tunnel was to determine suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus for phytoextraction of nickel from soil as well as to assess tolerance of this species on increasing concentrations of this metal in soil. Pots were filled with mineral soil (sand) and a mixture of soil with high-moor peat and three levels of nickel were introduced, i.e. 75 mg dm-3, 150 mg dm-3 and 600 mg dm-3 and the control combinations used substrates without the addition of nickel. Nickel was introduced only in the first year of the experiment in the form of nickel sulfate (NiSO4 · 6H2O). Miscanthus × giganteus accumulated a considerable amount of nickel in biomass. Miscanthus × giganteus growing in contaminated mineral soil turned out to be a species tolerant to high nickel concentrations
This study shows the results of flotation concentration of mica minerals from kaolinised granite taken from the “Bašića bare” deposit – Kobaš, Srbac, The Republic of Srpska (B&H). Mineralogical composition of kaolinised granite is as follows: kaolinite, feldspar, quartz, and mica. After separating >0.630 mm, and <0.043 mm size class where kaolinite is concentrated, the rest is –0.630+0.043 mm class containing quartz, feldspar and mica. The mica concentrate was obtained by the flotation concentration, while feldspar and quartz were in the flotation underflow. According to the mineralogical analysis, the most abundant minerals are mica and chlorite/clays, while quartz and feldspar occur much less, and accessory minerals are represented in trace. The semi-quantitative mineralogical analysis obtained by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) method of the mica concentrate amount to: mica ≈55%, chlorite/clays ≈35%, quartz ≈5%, feldspars (plagioclase and K-feldspars combined) ≈5%.
During the cruise of the research ship r/v Oceania owned by the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Sopot a research on mineral suspension concentration and dispersion distributions was conducted. The research area included the western part of the Baltic Sea, the Danish Straits, the Norwegian Sea, the waters around Spitsbergen and the North Atlantic Ocean. Samples of water were collected from the surface layer. They were subjected to microscopic analysis. Measurements were done with a projection microscope (magnification lOOOx) and using the Burker's table. After counting the particles dispersion distribution was determined. The largest concentration of mineral suspension was noted offshore in the Norwegian Sea and around Spitsbergen and the smallest in the central Atlantic Ocean.
The region’s development potential is a set of endogenous features that determine the growth of the local economy. It supports the development of knowledge, innovation and eff ective competition on global markets. The publication argues that saturation with potential may not be enough to cause economic growth. The distribution of potential is also important: concentration is its catalyst. The study proposes a method for measuring the concentration of potential. It has also been shown that the size of the regional economy depends on the distribution of potential in the region.
Steel and cast-iron products, due to their low price and beneficial properties, are the most widely used among metals; their consumption has become an indicator of the economic development of countries. The characteristics of iron raw materials, in relation to current metallurgical requirements, are presented in the present this article. The globalization of the trade and development of steelmaking technologies have caused significant changes in the quality of raw materials in the last half-century forcing improvements in processing technologies. In many countries, standard concentrates (at least 60% Fe) are almost twice as rich as those processed in the mid-20th century. Methods of quality assessment have been improved and quality standards tightened. The quality requirements for the most important raw materials ‒ iron ores and concentrates, steel scrap, major alloy metals, coking coal, and coke, as well as gas and other energy media ‒ are reviewed in the present paper. Particular attention is paid to the quality testing methodology. The quality of many raw materials is evaluated multi-parametrically: both chemical and physical characteristics are important. Lower-quality parameters in raw materials equate to significantly lower prices obtained by suppliers in the market. The markets for these raw materials are diversified and governed by separate sets of newly introduced rules. Price benchmarks (e.g. for standard Australian metallurgical coal) or indices (for iron concentrates) apply. Some raw materials are quoted within the framework of the commodity market system (certain alloying components and steel scrap). The abandonment of the long-established system of multi-annual contracts has led to wide fluctuations in prices, which have reached a scale similar to that of other metals.
The aim of the project was to collect experimental data regarding local distributions of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration in a tank reactor with turbulent flow. The experiments were performed in a microscale in a region of tracer fluid injection. The results of experiments can be used for direct validation of currently developed CFD models, particularly for time-dependent mixing models used in LES.
Whereas the use of biofuels has attracted increasing attention, the aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using sewage sludge as biofuel. Preparation of untreated and stabilised sludge with natural additives is described, as well as combusting method applied and experimental results of combusting are presented based on the assessment of composition of emitted pollutants and their concentrations in the exhaust gas. NOx formation in the exhaust gas has been analysed in depth. The results of investigations have shown that the use of dried sewage sludge possesses a positive energy balance. Therefore, the sludge may be used as fuel. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that during combustion, pollutant concentrations vary depending on oxygen content (O2), while formation of nitrogen oxides is strongly influenced by fuel-bound nitrogen. Also, a generalized equation of calculating fuel bound nitrogen conversion into NOx is presented.
The paper presents results of the field tests on membrane biogas enrichment performed with the application of mobile membrane installation (MMI) with the feed stream up to 10 Nm3/h. The mobile installation equipped with four hollow fibre modules with polyimide type membranes was tested at four different biogas plants. Two of them were using agricultural substrates. The third one was constructed at a municipal wastewater plant and sludge was fermented in a digester and finally in the fourth case biogas was extracted from municipal waste landfill site. Differences in the concentration of bio-methane in feed in all cases were observed and trace compounds were detected as well. High selectivity polyimide membranes, in proper module arrangements, can provide a product of high methane content in all cases. The content of other trace compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, water vapour and oxygen on the product did not exceed the values stated by standard for a biogas as a vehicle fuel. The traces of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour penetrated faster to the waste stream enriched in carbon dioxide, which could lead to further purification of the product – methane being hold in the retentate (H2O > H2S > CO2 > O2 > CH4 > N2). In the investigated cases, when concentration of N2 was low and concentration of CH4 higher than 50%, it was possible to upgrade methane to concentration above 90% in a two-stage cascade. To performsimulation ofCH4 andCO2 permeation through polyimide membrane,MATLABwas used. Simulation program has included permeation gaseous mixture with methane contents as observed at field tests in the range of 50 and 60% vol. The mass transport process was estimated for a concurrent hollow fibre membrane module for given pressure and temperature conditions and different values of stage cut. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. The highest degree of methane recovery was obtained with gas concentrating in a cascade with recycling of the retentate.
Simultaneous measurements of the indoor and outdoor particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN) concentrations as well as the air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations have been conducted in 6 occupied (L) and unoccupied (V) classrooms in 3 secondary schools in Lublin, Poland, in the heating (H) and summer (S) seasons. The schools were located in residential areas where the majority of private houses are heated by means of coal-burning stoves. The ratios of the average particle concentrations in occupied and unoccupied classrooms (L/V) were higher during the heating season measurements. The ratios of the average particle concentrations during the measurements in the heating and summer seasons (H/S) were higher in occupied classrooms. In both seasons the average PM and PN concentrations amounted to 239 μg/m3 and 7.4×103/cm3 in the occupied classrooms, and to 76 μg/m3 and 5.4×103/cm3 in the unoccupied classrooms, respectively. The particle exposures experienced by students were higher in the monitored classrooms than outdoors and were on average about 50% higher in the heating than in the summer season. A positive correlation between mass concentrations of coarse particles and indoor air temperature, RH and CO2 concentrations in both seasons was observed. The concentrations of fine particles were negatively correlated with the indoor air parameters in the heating season, and positively correlated in the summer season.
Rotary kiln installation forms a very complex system, as it consists of various components which affect cement production. However, some problems with particle settling are encountered during operation of tertiary air installation. This paper reports on the results of a study into gas-particle flow in a tertiary air duct installation. This flow was calculated using Euler method for air motion and Lagrange method for particle motion. The results in this paper demonstrate that study focus on the tertiary air installation is a practical measure without the analysis of other processes in the rotary kiln. A solution to this problem offers several alternatives of modifying the inlet to the tertiary air duct. As a result of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the influence of geometry of a rotary kiln modification on the number of large particles transported in the tertiary air duct. The results indicate that in order to reduce large particles, rotary kiln head geometry needs to be modified, and a particle settler should be installed at its outlet.
Changes of gas pressure in the moulding sand in the zone adjacent to mould cavity were analysed during pouring of cast iron. No significant effect of pressure on the surface quality of castings was observed. In the second series of tests, the concentration of hydrogen in the gas atmosphere was measured. It has been found that the value of this concentration depends on metal composition and is particularly high in cast iron containing magnesium. This is due to the reduction of water vapour with the element that has high affinity to oxygen. The presence of hydrogen causes the formation of gas-induced defects on the casting surface.
Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the carrier fluid that are seen by the bubbles due to turbulence fluctuations. Also we have included in the model the deformation that suffers the bubble when it touches the wall and it is compressed by the forces that pushes it toward the wall, provoking that the bubble rebound like a ball.
The paper presents results of research concerning operating of five small wastewater treatment plants working in two different technologies: hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plant and constructed wetland. Each object was designed for the treatment of domestic sewage after preliminary mechanical treatment in a septic tank. Hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plants and one of constructed wetland beds were built for treating sewage produced in educational institutions and resort. In the article attention is paid to possibility of exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants for three main indicators of pollution: BOD5, COD, and total suspension. The reduction of these indices is required by the Regulation of the Minister of Environment  for wastewater treatment plants with PE < 2000. In addition, the paper presents the effects of wastewater treatment to reduce biogens. The best quality of outflow was reached by outflows from constructed wetland treatment plants. None of the observed objects fulfilled the requirements in terms of allowable concentrations for total suspension. The most effective were objects operating in technology of “constructed wetland”.
Developed a method of a complex estimation of efficiency of the diesel particulate filter according to three criteria: the counting, the surface and the mass concentration of particulate matter considering their dispersion composition. The results of efficiency evaluation of a diesel particulate filter of freight car are presented using the proposed technique.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) was the subject of the study in two forms: winter cv. 'Muller' (at the rosette stage - the first internode BBCH 30-31) and spring cv. `Feliks' (at the yellow bud stage BBCH 59). The main gas-exchange parameters, net photosynthetic rate (P-N) transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured on leaves prior to the piercing and immediately after the short-term piercing. The effect of mechanical wounding revealed different progress of the gas exchange process for the two forms. Piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint estimation showed that the plants at the same age but at a different vegetal stage, manage mechanical leaf-piercing differently. The differences concerned the stomatal conductance and transpiration changes since for rosette leaves the process consisted of five intervals with a uniform direction, while for stem leaves-of five intervals with a fluctuating direction. These parameters got stabilized within a similar time (220 mins) for both forms. The process of net photosynthetic rate was altered by the plant stages. 'Muller' plants at the rosette stage demonstrated dependence of P-N on time in log-linear progression: y (P-N) = 8.01+ 2.73 log(10) (x t(2)); 7 < t(2) < 220; R-2 = 0.96. For stem leaves of Teliks' plants the process of transpiration, in terms of directions, was convergent with the process of photosynthesis. Those two processes were synchronized from 1st to 114th min of the test (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in plants at the rosette stage and from 26th to 148th min in stem leaves (r = 0.95; p < 0.001).
The vapour pressure of most explosives is very low. Therefore, the explosive trace detection is very difficult. To overcome the problem, concentration units can be applied. At the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, an explosive vapour concentration and decomposition unit to operate with an optoelectronic sensor of nitrogen dioxide has been developed. This unit provides an adsorption of explosive vapours from the analysed air and then their thermal decomposition. The thermal decomposition is mainly a chemical reaction, which consists in breaking up compounds into two or more simple compounds or elements. During the heating process most explosive particles, based on nitro aromatics and alkyl nitrate, release NO2 molecules and other products of pyrolysis. In this paper, the most common methods for the NO2 detection were presented. Also, an application of the concentration and decomposition unit in the NO2 optoelectronic sensor has been discussed.
Deterministic mechanics has been extensively used by engineers as they needed models that could predict the behavior of designed structures and components. However, modern engineering is now shifting to a new approach where the uncertainty analysis of the model inputs enables to obtain more accurate results. This paper presents an application of this new approach in the field of the stress analysis. In this case, a two-dimensional stress elasticity model is compared with the experimental stress results of five different size tubes measured with resistive strain gages. Theoretical and experimental uncertainties have been calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method and a weighted least square algorithm, respectively. The paper proposes that the analytical engineering models have to integrate an uncertainty component considering the uncertainties of the input data and phenomena observed during the test, that are difficult to adapt in the analytical model. The prediction will be thus improved, the theoretical result being much closer to the real case.