The metropolis of Barcelona is one of the first ten Europe's urban agglomerations. The geographic and natural conditions of the city - located in area between the sea and the forested mountain ranges running parallel to the coast and divided by broad river valleys - have considerably influenced the formation of its hybrid urban structure. The heart of the agglomeration is still Barcelona, established by the Phoenicians in a natural port at the foot of the Montjiuc hill, growing together with its neighbouring towns for more than two thousand years now, incessantly filling one fragment of natural landscape after another with urban fabric. Monumental edifices and high-rise buildings erected in all historic periods have been inorming visitors of the power of teh city and the same time defining places which are important for its urban composition and status. Recent decades have brought no revolutionary changes in this trend. What was changed, though, are the architectural forms of those most emblematic structures in the scale of the metropolis.
Most of the medieval Italian cities are civitas born of the ruins of the ancient Roman civilization. Their beauty ist the origin for deep esthetical experiences, to which Sławomir Gzell gave the name bellezza. There are a few characteristic features composing the "picturesqueness", painterliness and harmony of those cities, which lead the observer to strong emotions and constant, sensual exploration. The author contemplates the aspects creating the phenomrnon of beauty of Italian cities and towns - which are the metapfor of human desires and deepest cravings.
This study, describing computer simulation of a glider crash against a non-deformable ground barrier, is a part of a larger glider crash modeling project. The studies were intended to develop a numerical model of the pilot - glider - environment system, whereby the dynamics of the human body and the composite cockpit structure during a crash would make it possible to analyze flight accidents with focus on the pilot's safety. Notwithstanding that accidents involving glider crash against a rigid barrier (a wall, for example) are not common, establishing a simulation model for such event may prove quite useful considering subsequent research projects. First, it is much easier to observe the process of composite cockpit structure destruction if the crash is against a rigid barrier. Furthermore, the use of a non-deformable barrier allows one to avoid the errors that are associated with the modeling of a deformable substrate, which in most cases is quite problematic. Crash test simulation, carried out using a MAYMO package, involved a glider crash against a wall positioned perpendicularly to the object moving at a speed of 77 km/h. Computations allowed for determination of time intervals of the signals that are required to assess the behavior of the cockpit and pilot's body - accelerations and displacements in selected points of the glider's structure and loads applied to the pilot's body: head and chest accelerations, forces at femur, lumbar spine and safety belts. Computational results were compared with the results of a previous experimental test that had been designed to verify the numerical model. The glider's cockpit was completely destroyed in the crash and the loads transferred to the pilot's body were very substantial - way over the permitted levels. Since modeling results are fairly consistent with the experimental test, the numerical model can be used for simulation of plane crashes in the future.
Winglets are introduced into modern aircraft to reduce wing aerodynamic drag and to consequently optimize the fuel burn per mission. In order to be aerodynamically effective, these devices are installed at the wing tip section; this wing region is generally characterized by relevant oscillations induced by flights maneuvers and gust. The present work is focused on the validation of a continuous monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating sensors and frequency domain analysis to detect physical condition of a skin-spar bonding failure in a composite winglet for in-service purposes. Optical fibers are used as deformation sensors. Short Time Fast Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis is applied to analyze the occurrence of structural response deviations on the base of strain data. Obtained results showed high accuracy in estimating static and dynamic deformations and great potentials in detecting structural failure occurrences.
The locally resonant phononic crystal (LRPC) composite double panel structure (DPS) made of a twodimensional periodic array of a two-component cylindrical LR pillar connected between the upper and lower composite plates is proposed. The plates are composed of two kinds of materials and periodically etched holes. In order to reveal the bandgap properties of structure theoretically, the band structures, displacement fields of eigenmodes and transmission power spectrums of corresponding 8 × 8 finite structure are calculated and displayed by using finite element method (FEM). Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that if the excitation and response points are picked on different sides of the structure, a wide band gap with low starting frequency is opened, which can be treated as the coupling between dominant vibrations of pillars and plate modes. In addition, the influences of filled-in rubber, etched hole and viscidity of soft material on band gap are studied and understood with the help of “base-spring-mass” simplified model.
In the paper, the authors discuss the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the cantilever thin-walled beams made of a carbon-epoxy laminate. Two types of beams were considered: circumferentially asymmetric stiffness (i.e., CAS) and circumferentially uniform stiffness (i.e., CUS) beams. The layer-up configurations of the laminate were chosen to get a vibration mode coupling effect in both analysed cases. The aim of the paper was to perform the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the composite structures, when a flapwise bending with torsion coupling effect or flapwise-chordwise bending coupling effect took place. Firstly, numerical studies by the finite element method was performed. The numerical simulations were carried out by the Lanczos method in the Abaqus software package. The natural frequencies and the corresponding free vibration modes were determined. Next, the experimental modal analyses of the CAS and CUS beams were performed. The test stand was consisted of a special grip, two beams with an adhered holder, the LMS Scadas III system with a modal hammer and an acceleration sensor. Finally, the results of both methods were compared.