In this work problems associated with requirements related to pollution emissions in compliance with more restrictive standards, low-emission combustion technology, technical realization of the monitoring system as well as algorithms allowing combustion process diagnostics are discussed. Results of semi-industrial laboratory facility and industrial (power station) research are presented as well as the possibility of application of information obtained from the optical fibre monitoring system for combustion process control. Moreover, directions of further research aimed to limit combustion process environmental negative effects are presented.
This paper presents possibilities for of numerical modelling of biomass combustion in a commercially available boiler. A sample of biomass was tested with respect to its physical and chemical properties. Thermogravimetry studies of biomass were carried out. Computer simulation makes it possible to analyse complex phenomena which are otherwise difficult to observe. The aim of this work was to model biomass combustion to predict the amount of pollutants generated (NOx, CO, SO2) in the exhaust gases coming out from boilers The calculations were made using the CHEMKIN program. Results of calculations were performed taking into account the influence of temperature, pressure and residence time.
The article is focused onthe energetical balance of a technical system for the conversion of crushed tyres by pyrolysis. Process temperatures were set in the range from 500 to 650°C. Mass input of the material was 30 kg per hour. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions as regards the individual products: Under which process conditions can the highest quality of the individual products related to energy be reached? How does the thermal efficiency of the system change in reaction to various conditions of the process? On the basis of the experimental measurements and calculations, apart from other things, it was discovered that the pyrolysis liquid reaches the highest energetic value, i.e. 42.7 MJ.kg-1, out of all the individual products of the pyrolysis process. Generated pyrolysis gas disposes of the highest lower calorific value 37.1 MJ.kg-1 and the pyrolysis coke disposes of the maximum 30.9 MJ kg-1. From the energetic balance, the thermal efficiency of the experimental unit under the stated operational modes ranging from about 52 % to 56 % has been estimated. Individual findings are elaborated on detail in the article.
Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.
A catalytic combustion of organic admixtures of air belongs to the basic technologies of gas purification. A macrokinetics of admixtures combustion over the porous catalysts was described. The theoretical approach is in agreement with standard description of macrokinetics of the catalytic processes. The relationship between the fundamental magnitudes: observed process rate r*, reaction rate r in the kinetic zone, and a coefficient of the surface utilization η in the form r*= r · η have been described. These magnitudes combines the Thiele module φ. A kinetics equation for the isothermal and non-isothermal conditions was provided. The influence of mass and heat transfer in the catalyst grain on the course of the process was described by means of the surface utilization coefficient η. An equation describing this coefficient for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions was given. The second part of this work concerns the application of theory. When the composition of purified gas is continuously varied, a quantitative approach is rather impossible. The theory was used for the qualitative analysis of process on the basis of the experimental results. A fulfillment of the first-order kinetics means that the degree of admixtures conversion does not depend on their initial concentrations. A non-isothermicity of the catalyst grain is expressed in such a way that the process rate observed over the large porous grains of the catalyst can be higher than the reaction rate in the kinetic zone. A temperature deference between the catalyst grains and flowing gas causes that the reactor can be stably operated at varied concentrations of admixtures and temperature over a relatively wide range. It was also demonstrated that the flammable admixtures may advantageously influence the conversion of hardly combustible admixtures
The aim of this paper is to analyze various CO2 compression processes for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Different thermodynamically feasible CO2 compression systems will be identified and their energy consumption quantified. A detailed thermodynamic analysis examines methods used to minimize the power penalty to the producer through integrated, low-power compression concepts. The goal of the present research is to reduce this penalty through an analysis of different compression concepts, and a possibility of capturing the heat of compression and converting it to useful energy for use elsewhere in the plant.