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Abstract

Diurnal measurements of photosynthetic pr ocesses, effective quantum yield of photosystem II ( F PSII ), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) were done in three domi− nant species of Arctic tundra ( Silene acaulis , Dryas octopetala , Salix polaris ) in Petunia− bukta, Spitsbergen. Daily courses of net photosynthesis (P N ) were calculated from chloro− phyll fluorescence data and daily photosynthesi s evaluated. The short−term field measure− ments were carried out in summer 2009, and 2010. Fluorometric parameters ( F PSII and ETR) were measured each 5 minutes as well as microc limate characteristics of the site for 10 (2009) and 8 days (2010), respectively. In all species photosynthetic ETR was well related to incident photosynthetically active radiation a nd leaf temperature. In general, D. octopetala exhibited slightly lower ETR than the other two speci es. Estimated maximu m photosynthetic rate (P Nmax ) reached 17.6, 21.4, and 22.9 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 for S. polaris , S. acaulis ,and D. octopetala , respectively. Daily photosynthesis reach ed comparable values in all species, D. otopetala , however, exhibited slightly lower values than the other two species both for overcast and fully sunny days (3.9 and 13.4 mmol CO 2 m −2 d −1 , respectively). The range of daily photosynthesis for S. polaris and S. acaulis studied, reached the ranges of 4.6–6.9 and 14.6–15.2 mmol CO 2 m −2 d −1 for overcast and fully sunny day, respectively.
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Abstract

In order to evaluate morphological and physiological traits related to drought tolerance and to determine the best criteria for screening and identification of drought-tolerant genotypes, we grew two tolerant genotypes (MCC392, MCC877) and two sensitive genotypes (MCC68, MCC448) of chickpea under drought stress (25% field capacity) and control (100% field capacity) conditions and assessed the effect of drought stress on growth, water relations, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content in the seedling, early flowering and podding stages. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot dry weight, CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and Psii photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) in all genotypes. In the seedling and podding stages, Psii photochemical efficiency was higher in tolerant genotypes than in sensitive genotypes under drought stress. Water use efficiency (WUE) and CO2 assimilation rate were also higher in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes in all investigated stages under drought stress. Our results indicated that water use efficiency, A and Fv/Fm can be useful markers in studies of tolerance to drought stress and in screening adapted cultivars of chickpea under drought stress.
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Abstract

Exposure of green algae Chlorella vulgaris to short-term UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) induced several changes in the function of photosystem II (PS II) studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence (FL) and oxygen evolving. The intensity of photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity of algae suspension decreased in a similar way to the FL parameter values in proportion to the applied dose of UV-B radiation (0.0, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 kJ·m-2). The correlation between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FO ratio was better than that between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FM. The vitality index (Rfd) in the UV-B irradiated algae strongly decreased, compared to the control, which indicates inhibition of potential CO2 fixation and cooperation between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. It may indicate damage of Rubisco.
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