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Number of results: 4
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Abstract

Artemisinin is a powerful antimalarial drug, useful in the treatment of many diseases, includ- ing chickens coccidiosis. Its toxic effects have been well studied in humans and experimental animals, but not sufficiently in broiler chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the side effects of artemisinin in chickens, by measuring the serum level of proteins and enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, CK), by histopathological examination and by the evaluation of relative weight of organs (liver, kidney, heart). Artemisinin was administered in the standard feed for chickens in three different concentrations: 5, 50 and 500 ppm. Each concentration of artemisinin increased the total serum proteins, gamma-globulins and the serum activity of CK and decreased the serum ALP level. The values of ALT and GGT were higher in the chickens treated with 50 and 500 ppm of artemisinin. Multifocal liver necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate were detected in the chickens that received the 50 and 500 ppm dosage of artemisinin. Minimal tubular necrosis, renal tubular epithelium vacuolation, multifocal interstitial nephritis and mild uric nephrosis were detected in chickens treated with the drug. Artemisinin administration produced no significant changes in the organs relative weight. Artemisinin, at a concentration of 5 mg/kg of feed is well tolerated by broiler chickens, but the concentrations of 50 and 500 mg/ kg feed can produce toxic effects.
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Abstract

The number of human cases of salmonellosis in the EU was 94,625 in 2015. Considering the source of these infections, Salmonella spp. was most frequently detected in broiler chicken meat and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was the most commonly reported serovar. The efficacy of probiotics in limiting Salmonella spp. infection in poultry has been demonstrated in numerous papers. The administration of probiotics at the level of primary production reduces the risk of contamination of poultry food products with Salmonella spp. A study was carried out in order to determine the potential for reducing the Salmonella spp. population in broiler chickens with the use of the Lavipan (JHJ, Poland) probiotic that comprised selected stains of lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cervisae. Salmonella spp.-free broiler chickens were divided into two groups and received the same feed with (group L) or without (group C) the probiotic throughout the experiment. All day-old chickens were infected per os with SE. Samples of cecum content were collected 2, 4, and 6 weeks after SE infection and pectoral muscles were collected 6 weeks following SE infection for the evaluation of the SE population number. Serum samples for serological examinations were collected 6 weeks after infection. Six weeks after infection, the number of SE-positive cecal samples was lower in the L group (12.5% positive) in comparison to the C group (87.5%). Similar results were demonstrated for the muscle samples (25% in contrast to 87.5%). At the same time, in both cases, the SE CFU/g was significantly lower in the L group. The results of our study indicate that Lavipan was capable of reducing the population of SE in the gastrointestinal tract, which eventually improved the hygienic parameters of the pectoral muscles. Four weeks after infection, SE was not detected in any of the experimental groups. In both groups, no specific anti-SE antibodies were detected.
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Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study on chicken egg white solution ultrafiltration, where membrane fouling has been the main point of concern. Separation process has been performed with a 150 kDa tubular ceramic TiO2/Al2O3 membrane. The operating parameters have been set as follows: transmembrane pressure 105–310 kPa, cross-flow velocity 2.73–4.55 m/s, pH 5 and constant temperature of 293 K. Resistance-in-series model has been used to calculate total resistance and its components. The experimental data have been described with four pore blocking models (complete blocking, intermediate blocking, standard blocking and cake filtration). The results obtained show that the dominant fouling mechanism is represented by cake filtration model.
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Abstract

In order to compare the pathogenicity of different Tembusu virus (TMUV) strains from geese, ducks and chickens, 56 5-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings which were divided into 7 groups and infected intramuscularly with 7´105 PFU/ml per duck of six challenge virus stocks. The clinical signs, weight gain, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, virus loads in sera of 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 dpi and serum antibody titers were examined. The results showed that these viruses could make the young ducks sick, but the clinical signs differed with the different species-original strains. All the experimental groups lose markedly in weight gain compared to the control, but there were no obvious distinctions in weight gains, as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions of dead ducks between the infected groups. However, the groups of waterfowl-derived strains (from geese and ducks) showed more serious clinical signs and higher relative expressions of virus loads in sera than those from chicken-derived. The mortality of waterfowl groups was 37.5%, and the greatest mortality of chicken groups was 12.5%. The serum antibodies of the geese-species group JS804 appeared earlier and were higher in the titers than others. Taken toghter, the pathogenicity of waterfowl-derived TMUV was more serious than chicken-derived TMUV and JS804 could be chosen as one TMUV vaccine strain to protect from the infection.
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