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Number of results: 14
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Abstract

Petrographic and physico-chemical analyses of ashes are carried out on a large scale and presented in numerous scientific papers. The mentioned ashes are obtained from filters and electrostatic precipitators mounted in large industrial installations. The large-scale analysis of the ashes obtained directly from grate furnaces or blast furnaces mounted in low-power boilers started with combating smog and low-stack emissions. The collection of ash samples from household furnaces usually involves the analysis of the combustion of waste in low-power boilers. This is justified in the case of old type boilers, which were designed to use virtually any fuel. Currently, new types of boilers, designed to burn dedicated fuels, are offered on the market. The aim is to use only renewable fuels (biomass) or fossil fuels with high quality parameters, which are more environment-friendly, e.g. eco-pea coal, lignite briquettes, or peat briquettes. The authors of the study focused on examining the ash obtained from boilers for burning wood pellets by performing microscopic analysis of residues after biomass combustion. The above mentioned analysis provides a comprehensive information on the efficiency of the combustion process, the content of contaminants remaining in the ash, and the suitability of ash for other applications. The entire process, from the moment of collecting the samples to the execution of the analysis takes up to 12 hours, which ensures a quick decision on furnace adjustment or fuel change. The ash components were determined based on the results obtained by the Fly-Ash Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP). The mentioned classification has been supplemented with new key elements occurring in ashes resulting from the combustion of wood pellets in household boilers. This allowed determining the percentage content of characteristic components in the tested material, which can be used as a specific benchmark when issuing opinions on the quality and efficiency of the boiler and the combusted pellets.
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Abstract

According to a fuel flexibility, fluidized bed boilers are considered as appropriate for biomass combustion as cofiring. But the burning of fuels such as forest and agricultural biomass raises a number of operational problems. Most important of these problems are bed agglomeration and deposition. Deposition appears when biomass contains significant amounts of alkali elements, such as sodium and potassium. The purpose of the work is to select a fuel additive to overcome these operational problems. Investigations were conducted in two stages at a pilot scale 0.1 MWth laboratory circulating fluidized bed reactor. As the fuel, the mixture of biomass contained forest residues, sunflower husks, straw and wood pellets from mixed woods was selected. In the first stage biomass was burnt without any additives, while in the second one the fuel was enriched with some additive. The additive (liquid mixture of chemicals) was added to the fuel in amounts of 1 dm3 per 5-10 Mg of fuel. The following operational parameters were examined: temperature profiles along the height of the circulating fluidised bed column, pressure profiles, emissions. After the tests, the laboratory reactor was inspected inside. Its results enables expression of the following conclusions: there was no agglomeration during fuel additive testing, and the deposition was reduced as well. Moreover, the parts (heating surfaces, separator) of the laboratory reactor were coated with a protective layer. The layer covered microcracks and protected the parts from deposition for a long period after the operation.
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Abstract

Wood pellets are classified as a solid biomass type. They are one of the most popular bio-heating fuels used in Europe, especially in the small heating sector, where pellets are burned in low-power domestic boilers. The pellets and automatic pellet-fired heating devices gained popularity due to the increasing air pollution (smog) problem and the low emission limiting campaigns associated with it. Wood pellets are formed as a result of small forestry particles mechanical compression (mainly conifers originated) and they are listed among renewable energy sources. The purpose of the presented studies was to compare the quality of wood pellets used for pellet-fired boilers and to identify, qualitatively and quantitatively, impurities marked in the samples obtained from the domestic market. The application of petrographic analyses, applied so far in relation to fossil fuels, is a presented work innovation for wood pellets. The microscopic analyses were performed on both certified (ENplus/DINplus) and uncertified wood pellets available on the market. Unfortunately, the analysis revealed that the quality requirements were not met, because of the unacceptable contamination presence. The unacceptable organic inclusions in the analyzed samples are fossil coals and their derivatives, coke, and polymeric materials of natural origin. Unacceptable inorganic inclusions determined in the analyzed samples were: glass, slag, rust, pieces of metal, stone powder, plastic, and polymeric materials of inorganic origin.
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Abstract

The aim of the paper is a comparative study of co-firing high shares of wooden and agro-biomass with hard coal under oxy-fuel and air conditions in the laboratory scale reactor for pulverised fuels. The investigations of co-combustion behaviour NOx and SO2 emission and burnout were carried out for selected blends. Detailed investigations were concentrated on determining the effect of dosing oxygen method into the burner on NOx emission. The paper presents the results of co-firing blends with 20 and 50% share of biomass by mass in air and oxy-combustion condition. Biomass oxy-cofiring integrated with CCS (CO2 capture) technology could be a carbon negative technology. The reduction of NOx emissions in the conditions of oxy-co-firing is dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the primary stream of oxidiser. A significant reduction of NOx was achieved in the case of low oxygen concentration in the primary stream for each investigated blends. Co-firing of biomass with coal in an oxygen enriched atmosphere enhances combustion behaviour, lowers fuel burnout and as a result increases of the boiler efficiency.
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Abstract

Results of the study examining carbon monoxide and nitric oxide concentrations while burning different types of agricultural biomass: coffee husk pellets alone or in combination with wheat straw pellets and cherry stones, sewage sludge pellets, corn stover briquettes and a mixture of rye straw briquettes and miscanthus briquettes were presented. The combustion was performed in a 50 kW boiler type Biowarmer with a cast-iron moving step grate. The temperature in the combustion chamber did not exceed 800 ◦C. For all biomass types, only brittle slag was generated in the furnace, which was easily broken by a reciprocating movement of the grate. Carbon monoxide concentration in the flue gas except for the case of sewage sludge pellet firing did not exceed the permitted value of 3000 mg/m3 and nitric oxide concentration 515 mg/m3, both presented for 10% O2 concentration in the flue gas based in dry gas. Hydrocarbon concentrations for all test runs were close to zero.
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Abstract

This paper presents possibilities for of numerical modelling of biomass combustion in a commercially available boiler. A sample of biomass was tested with respect to its physical and chemical properties. Thermogravimetry studies of biomass were carried out. Computer simulation makes it possible to analyse complex phenomena which are otherwise difficult to observe. The aim of this work was to model biomass combustion to predict the amount of pollutants generated (NOx, CO, SO2) in the exhaust gases coming out from boilers The calculations were made using the CHEMKIN program. Results of calculations were performed taking into account the influence of temperature, pressure and residence time.
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Abstract

The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB) during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2) were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.
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Abstract

The demand for a net reduction of carbon dioxide and restrictions on energy efficiency make thermal conversion of biomass a very attractive alternative for energy production. However, sulphur dioxide emissions are of major environmental concern and may lead to an increased corrosion rate of boilers in the absence of sulfatation reactions. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the kinetics of formation of sulphur dioxide during switchgrass combustion. Experimental data that records the combustion process and the emission formation versus time, carried out by the National Renewable Energy Institute in Colorado (US), was used to evaluate the kinetic data. The combustion of switchgrass is described sufficiently accurate by the Discrete Particle Method (DPM). It predicts all major processes such as heating-up, pyrolysis, combustion of switchgrass by solving the differential conservation equations for mass and energy. The formation reactions of sulphur dioxide are approximated by an Arrhenius-like expression including a pre-exponential factor and an activation energy. Thus, the results predicted by the Discrete Particle Method were compared to measurements and the kinetic parameters were subsequently corrected by the least square method until the deviation between measurements and predictions was minimised. The determined kinetic data yielded good agreement between experimental data and predictions.
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Abstract

The paper analyzes the influence of humidity of combusted wood biomass on the flue gas losses. A mathematical relation between flue gas losses of the boiler on wood biomass humidity is presented as well as temperature of flue gas emitted from the boiler into the atmosphere. The limits of model application for the humidity of wood biomass falls into the interval 10–60% whereas the range of temperatures of flue gases emitted from the boiler to the atmosphere is 120–200°C. The influence of the humidity of wood biomass has an adverse effect on increasing the extent of the boiler flue gas losses and thus inefficiency of the heat production. The increase of the wood biomass humidity from the value of 10% to 60% with the outlet temperature of flue gases from the boiler 120°C causes an increase in flue gas loss of the boiler from the value 8.37% to 12.43%, similarly the increase of flue gas loss by 200°C from 15.19% to 22.55%, or the increase of the flue gas loss by 7.36%.
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis) burnt in air and O2/CO2mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA). The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2in the combustion environment by CO2caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate) in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2mixtures at 30% and 40% O2is faster and shorter than that at lower O2concentrations.
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-sowing seed stimulation of Thuringian Mallow (Lavatera thuringiaca L.) with He-Ne laser light of different exposure times on the crop yield as well as on energetic parameters such as calorific value and combustion heat. Seeds were subjected to laser light with an exposition time of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes. Measurements were carried out independently on mature plants from the first and second vegetation year. The results varied between the samples, which indicated possible impact of laser radiation on the resultant weight and calorific value of various experimental combinations. For plants from the second vegetation year the statistical differences in calorific value, combustion heat and crop mass were found between samples characterized by different exposition times: between sample irradiated for 30 min (L30) and 1 min (L1) as well as between sample L30 and sample irradiated for 5 minutes (L5). For plants after the first vegetation year the statistically significant differences in calorific value and combustion heat were found for sample with exposition time of 15 minutes (L15) and control sample, for sample L15 and sample L5 as well as between samples L15 and L30. For all the samples from the second vegetation year the increase in combustion heat and calorific values were detected as compared to control. Thus, after the application of certain parameters of laser radiation to the processing of seeds, the plant can be more useful for energetic purposes through more efficient crop.
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Abstract

The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L.) and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300), were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones), C=C (alkenes, aromatics), C-O-C (ethers) and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1), while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1) and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1). Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1). In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1) was assumed. Activation energy (Ea) values for the first stage (pyrolysis) increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion) it decreased from 146 to 109 kJ/mol for raw willow, as well as torrefied willow at the temperature range of 200-260°C. In the case of samples torrefied at 280 and 300°C, the Ea values of the first and second stage were comparable to Ea of untreated willow and torrefied at 200°C. It was also found that samples torrefied at a higher temperature, had a higher ignition point and also a shorter burning time.
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Abstract

Industrial utilization of fly ash from various kinds of fuel plays an important role in the envi-ronmentally clean and cost effective power production. The primary market for fly ash utilizationis as a pozzolanic addition in concrete production. The paper concerns the concretes containingfly ash called Fly Ash from Biomass (FAB) from co-combustion of hard coal and wood biomass(wood chips). Characterization of the fly ash was carried on by means of X-ray diffractometryand E-SEM/EDS analysis. The results of laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate the influence of FAB on concrete resistance to surface scaling due to cyclic freezing and thawing in the presenceof NaCl solution were presented. The tests were carried out for concretes containing up to 25% offly ash related to cement mass. Additionally, the microstructure of air-voids was described. It was concluded that the FAB has significant effect on concrete freeze/thaw durability. The re-placement of cement by fly ash from co-combustion progressively transformed the concrete mi-crostructure into less resistant against freeze/thaw cycles and excessive dosage (over 15%) maydangerously increase the scaling.
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