The present elaboration gives the results of investigations carried out by the VLF method in September. 1980. in Fuglebersletta, in the Hornsund Fiord area, Spitsbergen. The aim of the investigations was to localize precisely the ore-bearing veins and to trace their course.
The paper presents a numerical model of the novel design of the axial magnetic bearing with six cylindrical poles. The motivation behind this idea was to eliminate vibrations in rotating machinery due to the axial load. Common conception of such a bearing provides a single component of the electromagnetic force, which is not enough to reduce transverse and lateral vibrations of the armature. The proposed design allows for avoiding wobbling of the disc with the use of a few axial force components that are able to actively compensate the axial load and stabilise the disc in a balanced position. Before a real device is manufactured, a virtual prototype should be prepared. The accurate numerical model will provide essential knowledge about the performance of the axial magnetic bearing.
This paper presents the current study of the distribution of stresses for four-point contact wire race ball bearing. The main aim of this article is to define the most important geometrical rules in a wire-race bearing. The results for bearings of different geometrical parameters are presented. In the study, one also estimates the distribution of internal pressure in particular bearing elements.
Bearings of three-bearing shafts are usually treated as ideally-rigid articulated supports. In literature, the reactions of supports and bending moments of multibearing shafts are calculated taking into consideration only shaft elasticity. In fact, also deformation is present in these bearings, and it changes the shaft bending line. The deformation thus influences distribution of bending moment and reaction of supports. It is the most important difference when comparing two-bearing with three-bearing shafts. Moreover, in most types of bearings, a reactive bending moment is the response of bearing to unparallel position of inner bearing rings in relation to outer rings, that is to the tilt angle. As a result, real loads of rolling elements differ from theoretical ones. The aim of the paper is to develop a method of calculating generalized loads in rolling bearings of a three-bearing shaft taking into consideration shaft deformation, deformations in bearings and reactive moments of bearings caused by tilt angle.
Commonly used computations of basic rating life of a bearing system are based on the ISO 281:1990 standard. These computations include dynamic load capacity of a given bearing, its effective load and average rotational speed, whereas they omit distribution of external load acting upon particular rolling parts depending, among other things, on: - displacement in bearing (displacements in three directions and declination in two planes), - slackness in bearings. The aim of the presented theoretical research is to solve a problem of fatigue life of a ball bearing taking into consideration displacement in bearing resulting from elasticity of a three-bearing shaft, elasticity of bearings and their internal slackness.
Metallic bearing alloys have different types, most of which are tin (Babbitt) or bronze based. Bronze bearings are used at heavy duty conditions. The goal of this research is an investigation on the effect of cooling rate and pouring temperature (two important factors in casting production) on the Brinell hardness and pin-on-disc wear resistance (two important properties in bearing applications) of bronze SAE660. The melt had prepared by induction furnace. Then, it had poured in sand mold in four different casting conditions, including pouring temperatures of 950 oC and 1200 oC, and cooling with water and air. Finally, the microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of the SAE660 had investigated. The results indicated that if the maximum hardness, along with the minimum weight loss due to wear (or maximum wear resistance) is required; the contents of intermetallic compounds, lead phase and the solid solution phase should be more. In this way, the samples which are cooled in air and poured at 950 oC have the high hardness and the lowest weight loss.
Thrust bearing model is developed for fluid flow calculation and for determination of bearing integral characteristics in the presence of sliding surfaces closure and shaft angular displacements. The model is based on the coupled solution of the problem of incompressible fluid flow between the sliding surfaces and the problem of bearing and shaft elements deformation under the action of the fluid film pressure. Verification of the bearing model results is carried out by the comparison versus the fluid flow calculation results obtained by STAR-CD software and the experimental and theoretical results represented in the certain literature. Thrust bearing characteristics are determined versus sliding surfaces closure and rotating disk (runner) angular displacements. The contribution of the sliding surfaces deformations into bearing integral characteristics is estimated.
Different methods are used for production of bronze bearings. In terms of technical specifications, the success of each of these methods depends on the bond’s strength and in terms of economic, the production method is important. In this study, the aim is to study the strength and microstructure of steel-bronze thrust bearing bond that has been produced through the casting using pre-mold. In this study, in order to bond, the raw metals are chemically washed with sulfuric acid solution for five minutes at first. Then, the molten bronze SAE660 is cast in a structural steel S235JR pre-mold. The bond’s strength has been measured using the shear test three times; the measurement of bond’s length has been done using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results indicate that the strength of the bond is at least 94.8 MPa and bond’s length is 0.45 micrometers. Therefore, this method was successful for trust bearing application.
This paper focuses on the radio direction finding (DF) in multipath environments. Based on the measurement results presented in the open literature, the authors analyse the influence of environment transmission properties on the spread of the signal reception angle. Parameters that define these properties are rms delay and angle spreads. For these parameters, the mutual relationship is determined. This relationship is the basis for assessment of the required number of bearings that minimize the influence of the environment on the accuracy of DF procedure. In the presented analysis, the statistical properties of the signal reception angle are approximated by the normal distribution. The number of bearings versus the rms delay spread is presented as the main objective of this paper. In addition, a methodology of the bearings’ spatial averaging that provides better estimation of the reception angle is shown.
The condition monitoring techniques like acoustic emission, vibration analysis, and infrared thermography, used for the failure diagnosis of bearings, require longer processing time, as they have to perform acoustical measurement followed by signal processing and further analysis using special software. However, for any bearing, its period of usage can be easily determined within an hour, by measuring the bearing sound, using sound level meter (SLM). In this paper the acoustical analysis of the spindle bearing of a radial drilling machine was performed using SLM, by measuring the sound pressure level of the bearing in decibels, for different frequencies, while muting all the other noises. Then using an experimental set up, two database readings were taken, one for new bearing and the other for completely damaged bearing, both are SKF6207, which itself is the spindle bearing. From these three sets of sound pressure level readings, the period of usage of the spindle bearing, was calculated using an interpolation equation, by substituting the life of the bearing from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Therefore, for any machine with a SKF6207 bearing, its usage time can be estimated using the database readings and one measurement on that machine, all with the same speed.
Additional motor vibrations are the result of a faulty bearing. They are reflected in the harmonic content of stator currents. The object of the investigation presented in the paper are measurements related to diagnostics of induction motors, especially damages caused to bearings. Due to the fact that the amplitude of the network voltage basic harmonic in the current spectrum is high in comparison with components responsible for damages of bearings, preliminary elimination of this component from the analog current signal has been proposed. The problem with interpretation of diagnostic measurements in present systems is the difference between measurement results of characteristic frequencies and theoretical calculations. In the proposed measurement system this problem was solved in such a way that the value of the angular speed and of the supply frequency is calculated on the basis of appropriate components in the very same current spectrum that is further used in the search for diagnostic components. The paper presents also the measuring system and provides results of the investigations carried out on a motor encumbered with a specially prepared defect.
Journal bearings are the most common type of bearings in which a shaft freely rotates in a metallic sleeve. They find a lot of applications in industry, especially where extremely high loads are involved. Proper analysis of the various bearing faults and predicting the modes of failure beforehand are essential to increase the working life of the bearing. In the current study, the vibration data of a journal bearing in the healthy condition and in five different fault conditions are collected. A feature extraction method is employed to classify the different fault conditions. Automatic fault classification is performed using artificial neural networks (ANN). As the probability of a correct prediction goes down for a higher number of faults in ANN, the method is made more robust by incorporating deep neural networks (DNN) with the help of autoencoders. Training was done using the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm and the performance was calculated by the cross entropy method. Due to the increased number of hidden layers in DNN, it is possible to achieve a high efficiency of 100% with the feature extraction method.
Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MED) has been recently introduced to the machine condition monitoring field to enhance fault detection in rolling element bearings and gears. MED proved to be an excellent aid to the extraction of these impulses and diagnosing their origin, i.e. the defective component of the bearing. In this paper, MED is revisited and re-introduced with further insights into its application to fault detection and diagnosis in rolling element bearings. The MED parameter selection as well as its combination with pre-whitening is discussed. Two main cases are presented to illustrate the benefits of the MED technique. The first one was taken from a fan bladed test rig. The second case was taken from a wind turbine with an inner race fault. The usage of the MED technique has shown a strong enhancement for both fault detection and diagnosis. The paper contributes to the knowledge of fault detection of rolling element bearings through providing an insight into the usage of MED in rolling element bearings diagnostic. This provides a guide for the user to select optimum parameters for the MED filter and illustrates these on new interesting cases both from a lab environment and an actual case.
The paper presents a simulation model of the hybrid magnetic bearing dedicated to simulations of transient state. The proposed field-circuit model is composed of two components. The first part constitutes a set of ordinary differential equations that describes electrical circuits and mechanics. The second part of the simulation model consists of parameters such as magnetic forces, dynamic inductances and velocity-induced voltages obtained from the 3D finite element analysis. The MATLAB/Simulnik softwarewas used to implement the simulation model with the required control system. The proposed field-circuit model was validated by comparison of time responses with the prototype of the hybrid magnetic bearing.
The paper reports on investigation and development of a flywheel device intended for an energy storage prototype. The goal was to design and experimentally verify the concept of self-integrated flywheel with smart control of energy flow and accumulation. The Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) must has high energy efficiency and structural robustness. Investigation on structural dynamics of the composite flywheel connected with outer type rotor was carried out using Finite Element Method. The FESS is designed to run in vacuum and is supported on low-energy, controlled, active magnetic bearings (AMBs). The flywheel device of 10 MJ energy density and a weight of 150 kg with two integrated rotors/generators of 50 kW power density each is intended to operate up to 40 000 rpm.
AISI 52100 bearing steels are commonly used in applications requiring high hardness and abrasion resistance. The bearing steels are working under dynamic loads in service conditions and their toughness properties become important. In order to provide the desired mechanical properties, various heat treatments (austenizing, quenching and tempering) are usually applied. In this study, AISI 52100 bearing steel samples were austenized at 900°C for ½ h and water quenched to room temperature. Then tempering was carried out at 795°C, 400°C and 200°C for ½ h. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment conditions on wear behavior, dry friction tests were performed according to ASTM G99-05 Standard with a ‘ball-on-disk’ type tribometer. The samples were tested against steel and ceramic counterparts using the parameters of 100 m distance and 30 N load and 0.063 m/s rotational speed. After wear test, the surface characterization was carried out using microscopy. Wear loss values were calculated using a novel optical method on both flat and counterpart specimens.
The paper presents the method of probabilistic optimisation of load bearing capacity and reliability of statically indeterminate bar structures, and of coupling of members in kinematically admissible failure mechanisms (KAFM), which contain minimal critical sets of elements (MCSE). The latter are characterised by the fact that if only a single element is operational, the whole set is operational too. A method of increasing load bearing capacity and reliability of KAFM built from bars dimensioned in accordance with the code is presented. The paper also shows estimation of load bearing capacity and reliability of KAFM of the optimised structures containing elastic-plastic bars with quasi-brittle connections with nodes. The necessity of increasing connection of load bearing capacity and reliability in relation to bar reliability in order to prevent bars from being excluded from MCSE due to connection fracture is estimated.
The paper provides a solution to the problem of dimensioning decisive bars on the basis of the conditions of meeting the recommended reliability classes  of statically determinate structures composed of n members. A theorem was formulated:if a statically determinate structure composed of n decisive members is to attain the reliability greater than, or equal to, the recommended relia-bility p = 1 – q, it is necessary and suffi cient that the damage frequency sum qᵢ of decisive members is smaller than the admissible damage frequency q of thestructure: ∑qᵢ < q. On the basis of this theorem, s coeffi cients that recommend increase of the load bearing capacity of the decisive bars in a statically determinate structure constructed in order to meet the recommended class  of the structure reliability, are estimated and presented in a tabular form.
Optimum values of preload can be achieved in well-tried constructions and then applied in similar structures. For new structures, it is recommended to calculate the preload force and to test the correctness of calculation by means of experiments. In practice it may be necessary to introduce corrections, because not all real work parameters can be precisely known. Credibility of calculations depends, first of all, on the consistence between the assumptions concerning temperature conditions during work and elastic deformations of cooperating elements – first of all of a holder – and the real work conditions. The aim of the study is to determine how preload influences the work of a system of angular ball bearings, in relation to durability of bearing, moment of friction and rigidity of the bearing.
The results of bearing capacity, deformability and fracture toughness of reinforced concrete beams with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet, obtained due to the conducting of the experiment and mathematical simulation which were made of concrete of C40/50 class are given in the article. Mathematical simulation of beam structures is done on the basis of the deformation model which allows to conduct calculations of the unified methodological positions of different elements with diverse configuration of cross section and reinforcement as well as take into consideration elastic and plastic properties of concrete and reinforcement, assessing the actual stress-strain state of sections of reinforced concrete elements at different loading levels, including ultimate one. The deformation model is based on the actual diagrams use of concrete and reinforcement materials deformation and conditions of efforts balance in the normal section and hypothesis of flat sections. The theoretical value of bearing capacity and deformability, obtained as a result of the mathematical simulation was compared to the experimental data. The satisfactory coincidence of the mathematical calculation of bearing capacity, deformability, fracture toughness and experimental data gives an opportunity to use the algorithm not only for beam structures with bar reinforcement but also for beam structures with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet.
In rotating machineries, misalignment is considered as the second most major cause of failure after unbalance. In this article, model-based multiple fault identification technique is presented to estimate speed-dependent coupling misalignment and bearing dynamic parameters in addition with speed independent residual unbalances. For brevity in analysis, a simple coupled rotor bearing system is considered and analytical approach is used to develop the identification algorithm. Equations of motion in generalized co-ordinates are derived with the help of Lagrange's equation and least squares fitting approach is used to estimate the speed-dependent fault parameters. Present identification algorithm requires independent sets of forced response data which are generated with the help of different sets of trial unbalances. To avoid/suppress the ill-conditioning of regression equation, independent sets of forced response data are obtained by rotating the rotor in clock-wise and counter clock-wise directions, alternatively. Robustness of algorithm is checked for different levels of measurement noise.
Self-aligning roller bearings are an integral part of the industrial machinery. The proper analysis and prediction of the various faults that may happen to the bearing beforehand contributes to an increase in the working life of the bearing. This study aims at developing a novel method for the analysis of the various faults in self-aligning bearings as well as the automatic classification of faults using artificial neural network (ANN) and deep neural network (DNN). The vibration data is collected for six different faults as well as for the healthy bearing. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) followed by Hilbert Huang transform is used to extract instantaneous frequency peaks which are used for fault analysis. Time domain and time-frequency domain features are then extracted which are used to implement the neural networks through the pattern recognition tool in MATLAB. A comparative study of the outputs from the two neural networks is also performed. From the confusion matrix, the efficiency of the ANN has been found to be 95.7% and using DNN has been found to be 100%.
Field investigations concerning screw piles and columns have been carried out for the “Bearing capacity and work in the soil of screw piles” research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education – project No N N506 369234. The tests of three instrumented screw piles were conducted together with CPTU tests and measurements of pile installation parameters (especially torque). The objectives of field investigations and the entire research project include discovering how screw piles work in the soil, locating and describing the correlations between CPTU results and rotation resistance during pile auger installation and next establishing correlations between CPTU results, rotation resistance and the bearing capacity of this kind of piles. The paper describes the investigation procedure and the basic results of tests carried out in the first of a series of sites.
The process of designing control systems for devices operating in microgravity, on-orbit environment, requires testing to verify the effectiveness and characteristics of the algorithms. The key issue is to design a relevant environment in terrestrial conditions that affects both the linear and angular three-dimensional motion of a rigid body. This paper contains a description of the mechanical aspects of two test beds used to evaluate control algorithms planned for use in a space manipulator. Two solutions are presented: (i) a planar manipulator with a free base placed on an air-bearing table; and (ii) a test bed with a 7-DOF manipulator fixed through a force-torque measurement system to the base.
Hydrodynamic three tilting-pad journal bearing is analyzed in the paper. It is shown that, when assembling that type of not controlled bearing, it is impossible to obtain a small clearance between the pad and the journal at high frequency of journal rotation. In a static state, i.e. when the journal is immobile, such a bearing should be assembled with a large interference between the pads and the journal in order to guarantee the small clearance at rotation. At start, when the hydrodynamic lubricating wedges between the pads and journal are absent, the bearing would work with dry friction, resulting in quick wear of pads and high load of the drive motor. Apart of that, it is impossible to control the power consumption and temperature regime neither for idle nor for working rotation of the journal. The proposed automatic control gives a possibility to regulate the clearance between the pads and the journal by measuring and controlling the axial force of the pad load, and in such a way to improve work conditions of the bearing.