In the longwall exploitation system, the main gates are subject of the most intensive movements of the rock mass, where the proximity of the excavation front is a key factor. The paper presents the results of a research on the constants mb and s of Hoek-Brown failure criterion for the rocks surrounding the gallery: shale, sandy shale, coal and medium-grained sandstone, in relation to the distance to longwall face. The research comprised numerical modeling based on convergence monitoring records. The convergence measurements were carried out on three stations in a selected maingate in a coal mine from Upper Silesia Coal Basin near Jastrzębie-Zdrój, concurrently with changing distance to the longwall face. The measured were the width, the height and the heave of the floor of the gate. The measurements showed that the convergence at the longwall-maingate crossing was 1.5-3 times greater than in the locations much further from the longwall face. It was demonstrated that this effect was due to continuously changing properties of the rock-mass surrounding the gallery that can be expressed as decreasing empirical parameters mb i s of Hoek-Brown’s criterion. These parameters are decreasing exponentially together with the distance to the longwall face The consistency between the theoretical and factual curve varies between 70% to 98%. The change of each of the parameters can be described by general equation P = a· exp(–b·d), where a, b are constants, and d is the distance to the excavation face. The authors highlight that during the measurements period the horizontal stress was 1.45 to 1.61 times greater than the concurrent vertical stress. The so high horizontal stress causes heave of unsupported gallery floor which is commonly observed in the mines in Silesia.
Senecavirus A (SVA) the only member of the Senecavirus genus within the Picornaviridae family, is an emerging pathogen causing swine idiopathic vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses. Here, SVA strain (CH-HNKZ-2017) was isolated from a swine farm exhibiting vesicular disease in Henan Province of Central China. A phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequence indicated that CH-HNKZ-2017 was closely related to US-15-40381IA, indica- ting that a new SVA isolate had emerged in China.
In this paper, the applications of the multivariate data analysis and optimization on vibration signals from compressors have been tested on the assembly line to identify nonconforming products. The multivariate analysis has wide applicability in the optimization of weather forecasting, agricultural experiments, or, as in this case study, in quality control. The techniques of discriminant analysis and linear program were used to solve the problem. The acceleration and velocity signals used in this work were measured in twenty-five rotating compressors, of which eleven were classified as good baseline compressors and fourteen with manufacturing defects by the specialists in the final acoustic test of the production line. The results obtained with the discriminant analysis separated the conforming and nonconforming groups with a significance level of 0.01, which validated the proposed methodology.
In individual dogs, despite good quality of raw sperm, some parameters are significantly changed after thawing, which cannot be predicted. We therefore investigated whether motility parameters objectively obtained by CASA, membrane integrity (MI), cell morphology or a combination are suitable to improve the prediction of bad post-thaw quality. For this purpose 250 sperm analysis protocols from 141 healthy stud dogs, all patients introduced for sperm cryopreservation, were evaluated and a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) -analysis performed. The sperm was routinely collected, analysed, and frozen by using a modified Uppsala system. After thawing, data were routinely examined by using CASA, fluorescent microscopy for membrane integrity (MI) and Hancock’s fixation for evaluation of cell morphology. Samples were sorted by post-thaw progressive motility (P) in good (P > / = 50%, n=135) and bad freezers (P<50%, n=115). Among bad freezers, 73.9% showed in addition post-thaw total morphological abberations of >40% and/or MI <50%. Bad freezers were significantly older than good freezers (p<0.05). Progressive motility (P), velocity curvilinear (VCL), mean coefficient (STR), and linear coefficient (LIN) were potential predictors for post-thaw sperm quality since specifity was best (85.8%) and sensitivity (75.4 %) and accuracy (80.4 %) good. For these objectively measured raw sperm parameters, cut-off values were calculated allowing prediction of bad post-thaw results with high accuracy: P = 83.1 % VCL = 161.3 µm/sec, STR = 0.83 %, and LIN = 0.48 %. Raw sperm samples with values below these cut off values will have below average post-thaw quality with a probability of 85.8%. We conclude that VCL, P, STR and LIN are potential predictors of the outcome of sperm cryopreservation, when combined.
Spitsbergen glaciers react rapidly to changes in the polar environment, which is expressed in differences in extent of their fronts and surface geometry. The Scott Glacier, which is situated in the NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, is an example of the glacier that has undergone almost continuous recession since the Little Ice Age, interrupted by surges. The variations in recession are characterised based on multiannual data with particularly consideration of the period 1990–2005 and the season 2005/2006. Acceleration of front recession and lowering the surface was found only within the tongue up to a height of about 220 m a.s.l. Whereas, in the area situated in the zone of rock steps and above in the ablation zone, the change of glacier surface ablation (Dh) has been recorded compared to the mean annual recession for the period 1990–2005. Moreover, for the upper firn field, the positive surface ablation (DhS7 = +0.19 m) was observed. As the result of progressive reduction of the Scott Glacier mass, with the participation of other factors (bedrock relief among others), new surfaces of roche moutonnée are uncovering particularly in the tongue zone.
The paper presents a spatial distribution of changes of air temperature (T) in the Arctic. Estimates of their spatial relations in the study region were based on a correlation analysis. T in the Arctic is most strongly correlated spatially in winter and spring, and least in summer. The radius of extent of statistically significant correlation coefficients of changes of T at the stations Svalbard Lufthavn, Ostrov Kotelny and Resolute A is equal to 2000-2500 km in winter and 1500-2000 km in summer. An attempt was done to delimit the regions of consistent occurrence of the anomalies T with respect to the signs and magnitudes, as well as of the regions with the most coherent T. The Wroclaw dendrite method was used to solve this problem. Relations of the mean areał T of the climatic regions and of the Arctic as a whole, with the northern hemisphere of temperature and selected climatic factors are presented.
Fractal analysis is one of the rapidly evolving branches of mathematics and finds its application in different analyses such as pore space description. It constitutes a new approach to the issue of their natural irregularity and roughness. To be properly applied, it should be encompassed by an error estimation. The article presents and verifies uncertainties along with imperfections connected with image analysis and expands on the possible ways of their correction. One of key aspects of such research is finding both appropriate place and the number of photos to take. A coarse- grained sandstone thin section was photographed and then pictures were combined into one, bigger image. Fractal parameters distributions show their change and suggest that the accurately gathered group of photos include both highly and less porous regions. Their amount should be representative and adequate to the sample. The resolution influence on the fractal dimension and lacunarity values was examined. For SEM limestone images obtained using backscattered electrons, magnification in the range of 120x to 2000x was used. Additionally, a single pore was examined. The acquired results point to the fact that the values of fractal dimension are similar to a wide range of magnifications, while lacunarity changes each time. This is connected with changing homogeneity of the image. The article also undertakes a problem of determining fractal parameters spatial distribution based on binarization. The available methods assume that it is carried out after or before the image division into rectangles to create fractal dimension and lacunarity values for interpolation. An individual binarization, although time consuming, provides better results that resemble reality to a closer degree. It is not possible to define a single, correct methodology of error elimination. A set of hints has been presented that can improve results of further image analysis of pore space.
The iron ore mine owned by the state concern of Luossavaara – Kiirunavaara AB-LKAB state concern has several mining skip shaft hoists for drawing iron ore. Despite using modern systems to secure the travel of these hoists in line with the Swedish regulations, units intended for the emergency breaking of vessels must be used in the so-called free travel paths in the tower and in the shaft sump. The paper discusses the main requirements that, in accordance with the Swedish regulations as regards the operational use of mining shaft hoists, must be met by devices of this type and a solution was proposed for a structure design of the braking unit for the mining shaft hoist installed in the B-1 shaft in the Kiruna mine. The frictional braking system in the form of moving bumping beams was decided to be used in the said hoist, developed in the Cable Transport Department in the University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The action of moving bumping beams consists in these beams, placed at the beginning of free travel paths, not only braking the rushing hoist vessels but also (with the integrated units for vessel capture) performing the function of grips. They secure the vessels against falling down into the shaft after the finished braking process. The advantage of such a solution is that the structural elements: the guiding shank of the tower, the head of the vessel and the bumping beams, transfer many times lower values of dynamic forces at the time of the strike of the vessel against the moving bumping beams when compared with dynamic forces arising at the time of the hit of the vessel against the fixed bumping beams. In the process of designing moving bumping beams, braking simulation is an important stage conducted with a computer program developed in KTL AGH. This program enables the modelling of load-bearing and balance ropes as flexible elements with elastic and suppressing properties. The results of these simulations, especially in the scope of the achieved braking deceleration of the vessels, the values of braking distances and forces in the load-bearing ropes are crucial in confirming the correctness of the assumed concept of the emergency braking system. The braking units in the form of moving bumping beams have been executed by the Polish company Coal-Bud Sp. z o.o. and are now being integrated in the tower and in the shaft sump of the B-1 shaft of the Kiruna mine in Sweden.
The research of development capabilities is a fundamental of strategic issues, which has to be taken into consideration by coal mines. This is particularly difficult in the current environment, which is determined by its crisis situation. In such conditions, it is necessary to take difficult decisions, and serious, strategic challenges into account, which allow for the crisis to be overcome, for the renewal and economic effectiveness of the operation of these coal mines, which have potential to grow, and closing the coal mines, which have not potential to grow. Due to the effects of such decisions, which concern not only coal mines but also the Silesian region, it is essential to prepare information to support them and promote rational choices. This is related to the issue of research for development possibilities. The article presents considerations related to the subject of research for development possibilities of coal mines in a crisis situation. Taking the results of literature study into account, the model of research process was developed, and identified the research issues concerning the following: - the identification of external factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines and drawing a schedule of their changes in the future, - the identification of internal factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines, - developing a way for the assessment of the development potential of the coal mines, to show appropriate strategic options and action programmes for these options, - determining possible strategic options and corresponding schedules, appropriate for the specific nature of the mines. The proposition of their solutions, which were obtained in the process of using the specific methods and research tools, allowed the guidelines in terms of research of development capabilities of coal mines to be presented.
The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the usual scheme associated with Clausewitz, which narrows his life down to being a soldier and concentrates solely on his theory of war. By presenting his main methodological approach, the study examines the role of history in Clausewitz’s thinking and analyses how his historical studies tested and validated his evolving theoretical structure and how they could enable soldiers who had never fought or served as commanders to develop their battle intuition and enhance decision making process by learning from real world examples in times of peace.
The pump performance and occurrence of cavitation directly depends on different operating conditions. To cover a wide range of operation conditions for detecting cavitation in this work, investigations on the effect of various suction valve openings on cavitation in the pump were carried out. In order to analyse various levels of cavitation in different operation conditions, the effect of the decrease in the inlet suction pressure of the centrifugal pump by controlling the inlet suction valve opening was investigated using this experimental setup. Hence, the acoustic and pressure signals under different inlet valve openings and different flow rates, namely, 103, 200, 302 l/min were collected for this purpose. A detailed analysis of the results obtained from the acoustic signal was carried out to predict cavitation in the pump under different operating conditions. Also, the acoustic signal was investigated in time domain through the use of the same statistical features. The FFT technique was used to analyse the acoustic signal in the frequency domain. In addition, in this work an attempt was made to find a relationship between the cavitation and noise characteristics using the acoustic technique for identifying cavitation within a pump.
This article focuses on the question of the relation between the subject of The Modern World-System by Immanuel Wallerstein and the theoretical object of worldsystem analysis as a multidisciplinary approach that he proposed for history and the social sciences. The importance of this approach as well as its theoretical deficiencies are shown by examining two unanswered critiques of the first volume of The Modern World-System — one coming from Robert Brenner and the second from Fernand Braudel.
Bacteria from the Simkaniaceae family are intracellular parasites belonging to the Chlamydiales order, detected in surface waters, drinking water, chlorine water, and in wastewater. Its main representative, Simkania negevensis, is pathogenic to humans and animals, especially fishes, as it principally causes respiratory tract diseases. Bacteria from this family are also capable of surviving and existing in free-living amoebas, omnipresent in the natural environment, which makes them an additional risk for human and animal health. The aim of the present study was to search for representatives of this family in freshwaters from the Odra River and two municipal lakes (Rusałka and Goplana). Out of 100 water samples analysed, the sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family was found just in 1 percent, because phylogenetic analysis revealed that the obtained OdraWCh30 sequence shows 93% similarity to Simkania negevensis strain Z as well as 87% similarity to Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate Ho-2008 and Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate VS10102006 and 84-85% similarity to endosymbiont of Xenoturbella westbladi, Simkaniaceae bacterium clone SM081012-5s and Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia strain Pi3-2. This is the first case of detecting sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family in the aquatic environment in Poland.
This article presents a case study of a large wedge failure. It took place during excavation of the last bench of storage cavern with an approximate dimension of 80 m long having a depth of 8 m. The adopted intervention followed a structured approach, which included immediate rock support, geotechnical and geological investigations in the failure zone and design modifications. Back analyses of the failure zone were also carried out to assess design parameters with observed geological conditions. Re assessment in the failure zone was carried out using modified design parameters, which included shorter benches, rock support installation schemes such as longer rock bolts, reinforced ribs of shotcrete and reduced construction advances. Geotechnical monitoring in and around failure zone were carried out for recording any alarming movements in the rock mass. Initially, geotechnical monitoring was carried out in the recently excavated zone of the cavern on a daily basis. Based on continuous monitoring data for at least one week, the frequency of subsequent monitoring can be decided. In most cases the deformation of rock mass was considerably less than the alarming values which were calculated based on detailed design for different rock classes. The paper discusses the failure, investigation, cause, assessment and remedial measures to complete the construction of cavern.
This paper presents a complex study of anhydrite interbeds influence on the cavern stability in the Mechelinki salt deposit. The impact of interbeds on the cavern shape and the stress concentrations were also considered. The stability analysis was based on the 3D numerical modelling. Numerical simulations were performed with use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the FLAC3D v. 6.00 software. The numerical model in a cuboidal shape and the following dimensions: length 1400, width 1400, height 1400 m, comprised the part of the Mechelinki salt deposit. Three (K-6, K-8, K-9) caverns were projected inside this model. The mesh of the numerical model contained about 15 million tetrahedral elements. The occurrence of anhydrite interbeds within the rock salt beds had contributed to the reduction in a diameter and irregular shape of the analysed caverns. The results of the 3D numerical modelling had indicated that the contact area between the rock salt beds and the anhydrite interbeds is likely to the occurrence of displacements. Irregularities in a shape of the analysed caverns are prone to the stress concentration. However, the stability of the analysed caverns are not expected to be affected in the assumed operation conditions and time period (9.5 years).
The main aim of the research has been to characterise changes the urban functional areas in Poland over 2002–2017 period. The research was based on J.W. Webb’s population development types method enabling to identify links between natural growth and the migration net. A wider analysis concerned components of real increase which, through feedback, influenced level and population dynamics in these areas. Results of the study showed the diversity of demographic processes within Polish urban functional areas as well as in their cores, which will shape different processes in those areas in the future.
Transport is one of the factors influencing the development of metropolitan areas. However, for its efficient work, numerous optimizations are required. Main tasks are shortening travel time, improving service quality and increasing the number of passengers served. The author has presented current studies on the field in optimization of public transport, mainly ways to optimize the transport network construction, based on large data sets about the population and their communication behaviour. Methods of combining various types of public transport with each other are presented. In the paper also are presents authors studies on the communication accessibility within the city of Cracow. Estimated distances from buildings to various types of public transport stops. The results were presented in aggregated form. Calculated communication speed of three types of public transport functioning in Cracow has also been discussed.
In this article, a comparison of economic effectiveness of various heating systems dedicated to residential applications is presented: a natural gas-fueled micro-cogeneration (micro-combined heat and power – μCHP) unit based on a free-piston Stirling engine that generates additional electric energy; and three so-called classical heating systems based on: gas boiler, coal boiler, and a heat pump. Calculation includes covering the demand for electricity, which is purchased from the grid or produced in residential system. The presented analyses are partially based on an experimental investigation. The measurements of the heat pump system as well as those of the energy (electricity and heat) demand profiles in the analyzed building were conducted for a single-family house. The measurements of the μCHP unit were made using a laboratory stand prepared for simulating a variable heat demand. The overall efficiency of the μCHP was in the range of 88.6– 92.4%. The amounts of the produced/consumed energy (electricity, heat, and chemical energy of fuel) were determined. The consumption and the generation of electricity were settled on a daily basis. Operational costs of the heat pump system or coal boiler based heating system are lower comparing to the micro-cogeneration, however no support system for natural gas-based μCHP system is included.
This article combines a general introduction to the crime fi ction of Walery Przyborowski with a study of the structure of the plot of his novels. The analyses of ten of his novels conclude with a typology of their narrative schemes, shown in the context of certain invariant patterns and the conventions of related literary genres. While the main objective of this study is to outline the structure of crime story and the social issues depicted in Przyborowski’s crime fi ction, it also pays some attention to the ways in which it refl ects his concerns about contemporary life and the condition of Poland under foreign rule. Basically, Przyborowski’s formula is to make use of the staples of the genre – mystery, adventure, romance – and the techniques of the popular novel. Moreover, his novels, like all of the 19th-century crime fi ctions, are clearly indebted to the conventions of the historical novel.
Overseas mining investment generally faces considerable risk due to a variety of complex risk factors. Therefore, indexes are often based on conditions of uncertainty and cannot be fully quantified. Guided by set pair analysis (SPA) theory, this study constructs a risk evaluation index system based on an analysis of the risk factors of overseas mining investment and determines the weights of factors using entropy weighting methods. In addition, this study constructs an identity-discrepancycontrary risk assessment model based on the 5-element connection number. Both the certainty and uncertainty of the various risks are treated uniformly in this model and it is possible to mathematically describe and quantitatively express complex system decisions to evaluate projects. Overseas mining investment risk and its changing trends are synthetically evaluated by calculating the adjacent connection number and analyzing the set pair potential. Using an actual overseas mining investment project as an example, the risk of overseas mining investment can be separated into five categories according to the risk field, and then the evaluation model is quantified and specific risk assessment results are obtained. Compared to the field investigation, the practicability and effectiveness of the evaluation method are illustrated. This new model combines static and dynamic factors and qualitative and quantitative information, which improves the reliability and accuracy of risk evaluation. Furthermore, this evaluation method can also be applied to other similar evaluations and has a certain scalability.
Washing is very popular technological operation removing clay particles from aggregates. The amount of mineral washing sludges increases. Besides filling the excavations, there is no common method of their utilization. The usage of sludges from washing aggregates in building ceramics might be environmentally friendly way to utilize them. This paper presents laboratory research on two type of sludges: from dolomite and limestone aggregates washing. Selected properties of sludges such as water content, particle size distribution (sieve and areometric method), chemical composition (XRF), mineral composition (XRD), thermal properties (STA/EGA, dilatometry, heating microscopy) and stability of fired materials during steam exposure were determined. It was found that dolomite sludge contains more clay minerals and less carbonates, it is more finely grained than limestone sludge. Limestone sludge has large fluctuations in water content and has high content of potentially hazardous calcite grains. During heating up to 1300°C of both dried sludges decarbonation and sintering take place. Dolomite sludge softens, melts and flows below 1300°C. After firing sludges at 1000°C material made of limestone sludge is not resistant to steam. The obtained result suggests that dolomite sludge can be used in building ceramics technology without processing as main component of ceramic mass. Limestone sludge have to be ground before its application in building ceramic materials. Results suggest that it can not be used as the main raw material in ceramic masses, but only as an additive.
The aim of the article to assess the functioning of the NewConnect market over 10 years from the organizer’s and participants’ perspective. This helps to diagnose the most important organizational advantages and problems of the Polish MTF, determine further development prospects and propose potential changes to neutralize the negative factors. To illustrate the problem, a comprehensive analysis will be made of aggregated statistical data from 2007–2017, which show the changes and trends on this market, and additionally include the data comparing the current state of the NewConnect market with other alternative markets organized by European stock exchanges. The conducted research does not allow to view the NewConnect market as an organizational success. The analysis identified a number of problems in the functioning of the Polish MTF, ranging from the inappropriate organization of the primary market, resulting in the admittance of too high a number of issuers of dubious credibility, to the consequences appearing on the secondary shares market. It does not give unambiguous grounds to expect positive prospects for the market development in the future. In order to stop unfavorable trends and to improve the issuers’ quality, a discussion on the regulations regarding issuers’ admission, i.e. the size of the minimum equity, IPO, capitalization and the issue price of the debuting company, should be initiated.
The subject of the paper is the analysis of factors determining the value of multi-entity organizations in the energy sector and their ranking according to the degree of impact on this value. For this purpose, statistical methods were used, which are best suited to determine the order of diagnostic features according to a specific criterion. The survey covered companies from the Polish energy sector, while the process itself is based on aggregated data, which represents the financial data of capital groups currently operating in the Polish energy sector. The first part of the article presents a short description of the Polish energy sector, paying particular attention to the organizational structure of the sector, i.e. companies operating on the domestic energy market. The nature of a multi-entity enterprise as a typical economic unit in the sector is described. The second part of the article describes the assumptions of multidimensional comparative analysis (MCA) as a tool for comparing multifunctional units. The MCA makes it possible to find the most important parameters or indicators having the greatest impact on the value of a multi-entity organization, i.e. a capital group. The survey covered four companies from the Polish energy sector: TAURON Polska Energia SA, ENEA SA, ENERGA SA and PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA. The study with the use of MCA was conducted in three stages: - in the first stage, on the basis of information contained in the financial statements, a matrix of diagnostic features was created, describing the financial condition of the examined entity, - in the second stage, the values of diagnostic variables were normalized/unified; two methods of normalization were applied: the method of standardization and zero unitization, - in the third stage, the diagnostic variables were grouped using two methods: the model measure of Hellwig’s development and the non-standard measure of development. The results of the analysis are illustrated by tables and figures.
The establishment of the Research Network Lukasiewicz (RNL) is aimed at strengthening the research potential and knowledge transfer from research institutes to enterprises. The article presents the results of the research potential analysis of 38 research institutes that are to form the RNL, based on data on scientific publications in 2013–2016. The number of publications of RNL institutes was similar to the number of publications of TNO and VTT institutes but smaller than that of Fraunhofer institutes. The publications of RNL institutes had lower values of indicators of international collaboration and collaboration with business as well as lower values of citation indices. Co-authors of RNL publications were mainly affiliated with national scientific units, whereas co-authorship with Fraunhofer, TNO and VTT institutes was marginal. The article also outlines the limitations and challenges of the adopted research method and future research orientations in this area.
In 2018, the 90th anniversary of Professor Vasiliy Danilovich Bondaletov`s birth will be celebrated. The aim of the article is to remind readers of the quantitative and qualitative method of statistical analysis in anthroponomastic research developed by Professor Bondaletov, as well as to show its advantages over simplified descriptions of the frequency of personal names. In this article, the detailed analysis of male Christian names found in customs books from Northern Russia (1633–1636 and 1678–1680) was conducted. The comparison of statistical data, according to the suggestion of Professor V. D. Bondaletov, enabled us to observe subtle differences between the abovementioned resources, namely to estimate the level of their (dis)similarity and describe the dynamics of the evolution of the resources of male Christian names throughout the 17th century, as well as changes in the popularity of various names.