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Number of results: 5
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Abstract

We talk to Prof. Andrzej Górski from the Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy about what is going wrong with antibiotics and whether they might one day be replaced with bacteriophages.
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Abstract

22 representative antibiotics, including 8 quinolones (QNs), 9 sulfonamides (SAs), and 5 macrolides (MCs) were selected to investigate their occurrence and removal efficiencies in a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and their distribution in the receiving water of the Chaobai River in Beijing, China. Water quality monitoring was performed in an integrated way at different selected points in the WWTP to explore the potential mechanism of antibiotics removal during wastewater treatment. Water quality of the Chaobai River was also analyzed to examine environmental distribution in a river ecosystem. The results showed that within all the 22 compounds examined, 10 antibiotics were quantified in wastewater influent, 10 in effluent, and 7 in river. Sulfadiazine (SDZ, 396 ng/L) and Sulfamethazine (SMZ, 382 ng/L) were the dominating antibiotics in the influent. Both the conventional treatment and advanced Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) system was important for the removal of antibiotics from the wastewater. And the concentrations of selected antibiotics were ranged from 0-41.8 ng/L in the effluent-receiving river. Despite the fact that the concentrations were reduced more than 50% compared to effluent concentrations, WWTP discharge was still regarded as a dominant point-source input of antibiotics into the Chaobai River.
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Abstract

Wild ruminants are an interesting topic for research because only limited information exists regarding their microbiota. They could also be an environmental reservoir of undesirable bacteria for other animals or humans. In this study faeces of the 21 free-living animals was sampled (9 Cervus elaphus-red deer, adult females, 12 Capreolus capreolus-roe deer, young females). They were culled by selective-reductive shooting during the winter season of 2014/2015 in the Strzałowo Forest District-Piska Primeval Forest (53° 36 min 43.56 sec N, 21° 30 min 58.68 sec E) in Poland. Buttiauxella sp. is a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rod anaerobic bacte- rial species belonging to the Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Entero- bacteriales, Family Enterobacteriacae and to Genus Buttiauxella. Buttiauxella sp. has never previ- ously been reported in wild ruminants. In this study, identification, antimicrobial profile and sensitivity to enterocins of Buttiauxella strains were studied as a contribution to the microbiota of wild animals, but also to extend knowledge regarding the antimicrobial spectrum of enterocins. Five strains were identified using the MALDI-TOF identification system (evaluation score value was up to 2.224) and allotted to the genus Buttiauxella including the species Buttiauxella gaviniae, B. ferragutiae, B. agrestis. Strains were DNase negative, and they hydrolysed esculin; fermentation of L-arabinose, D-mannitol and D-mannose was positive. Dulcitol, inositol reaction, urea and indol were negative. Buttiauxella strains did not form biofilm. They were resistant to at least one of the 13 antibiotics tested. B. agrestis 2/109/1 was resistant to amdinocillin, clindamycin and pen- icillin. However, Buttiauxella strains were sensitive to the enterocins used (inhibition activity ranged from 100 to 25 600 AU/ml).
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Abstract

Since fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are extensively used both in human and veterinary medicine their accumulation in the environment is causing increasing concern. The aim of the study was to isolate a microbial consortium resistant to ofl oxacin and norfl oxacin and able to biodegrade both antibiotics. Green compost was used as a source of microorganisms. The biodegradation effi ciency was monitored by changes of antibiotics concentrations and toxicity. The microbial consortium was composed of two bacterial isolates: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K2) and Achromobacter sp. (K3) and two fungi Candida manassasensis (K1) and Trichosporon asahii (K4). All the isolates were characterized as highly resistant to both antibiotics – ofl oxacin and norfl oxacin. FQs were supplied individually into the culture medium in the presence of an easily degradable carbon source – glucose. Biodegradation of norfl oxacin was much faster than ofl oxacin biodegradation. During 20 days of the experiment, the norfl oxacin level decreased by more than 80%. Ofl oxacin was generally biodegraded thereafter at relatively slow biodegradation rate. After 28 days the ofl oxacin level decreased by 60%. Similarly, the toxicity of biodegraded antibiotics decreased 4-fold and 3.5-fold for norfl oxacin and ofl oxacin, respectively. The ability of the bacterial-fungal consortium to degrade antibiotics and reduce toxicity could help to reduce environmental pollution with these pharmaceutical.
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Abstract

The aim was to explore the feasibility of using bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotics substitute in weaning piglets. Forty-five healthy Duroc × Landrance × Yorshire piglets (weight 6.74 ± 0.17 kg; age 31 days) were randomly divided into the control group (basic diet), ANT group (basic diet + 0.12% compound antibiotics), BV1 group (basic diet + 0.1% bamboo vinegar powder), BV5 group (basic diet + 0.5% bamboo vinegar powder) and BV10 group (basic diet + 1% bamboo vinegar powder). MyD88 and CD14 expression in immune tissues was examined using real-time PCR. MyD88 expression in the control group were significantly lower than that in other groups in all tissues (p<0.05), while CD14 expression showed the opposite trend. MyD88 expression was significantly higher in the BV10 group than in other groups in lung tissue (P<0.05), significantly higher in the ANT group than in the BV1 group in the kidneys (P<0.05), significantly higher in the BV10 group than in the BV1 group in the thymus (P<0.05), and signifi- cantly higher in the BV1 group than in the BV10 group in the lymphatic tissue (P<0.05). These differences between experimental groups were not observed for the CD14 gene (P>0.05). Thus, adding bamboo vinegar powder to the basic diet of weaning piglets had immune effects similar to antibiotics and the effect was dose-dependent. Moreover, the MyD88 and CD14 genes appear to play a role in these immune effects
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