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Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the generation, use, and transboundary movement of waste labeled with the code 191210 according to the waste catalogue regardless of its origin (municipal, industrial or mixed). Data contained in voivodship reports related to waste management and information about transboundary shipments shared by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection were also used in the article. The imbalance in the amount of produced and energetically used alternative fuels in Poland in the years 2015 to 2017 has been confirmed. This affects the economy of the waste management sector involved in the production of alternative fuels. The oversupply causes the prices of alternative fuels to fall and increases the need for subsidies in the case of the recovery or disposal of alternative fuels of lower quality. In the near future one should expect a stabilization of the supply of combustible waste to the cement industry, which is now beginning to achieve its technological potential; this is due to a high degree of replacement of fossil fuels. One should also expect an increase in the demand for alternative fuels from the commercial power sector and heating sector. It has been shown that much more alternative fuel is imported than exported from Poland. The amount of imported alternative fuel in the market is relatively low compared to the amount of fuel produced in the country. This oversupply affects, although not significantly, the possibility of using domestic waste for energy recovery. The export of the alternative fuel produced in the country is a favorable phenomenon when there is no possibility of sale on the domestic market. It seems rational, especially in the case of exports from installations producing fuels in border provinces.
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Abstract

It has been found that the vegetable oils are promising substitute, because of their properties are similar to those of diesel fuel and they are renewable and can be easily produced. However, drawbacks associated with crude vegetable oils are high viscosity, low volatility call for low heat rejection combustion chamber, with its significance characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, and ability to handle lower calorific value (CV) fuel etc. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of an engine consisting of different low heat rejection (LHR) combustion chambers such as ceramic coated cylinder head-LHR-1, air gap insulated piston with superni (an alloy of nickel) crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert - LHR-2; and ceramic coated cylinder head, air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner - LHR-3 with normal temperature condition of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) with varied injector opening pressure. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, coolant load, and volumetric efficiency) and exhaust emissions [smoke levels and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]] were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine. Combustion characteristics [peak pressure, time of occurrence of peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise] were determined at full load operation of the engine. Conventional engine (CE) showed compatible performance and LHR combustion chambers showed improved performance at recommended injection timing of 27°bTDC and recommend injector opening pressure of 190 bar with CRBO operation, when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiencyincreased relatively by 7%, brake specific energy consumption at full load operation decreased relatively by 3.5%, smoke levels at full load decreased relatively by 11% and NOx levels increased relatively by 58% with LHR-3 combustion chamber with CRBO at an injector opening pressure of 190 bar when compared with pure diesel operation on CE.
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Abstract

The article analyzes the risk factors related to the energy use of alternative fuels from waste. The essence of risk and its impact on economic activity in the area of waste management were discussed. Then, a risk assessment, on the example of waste fractions used for the production of alternative fuel, was carried out. In addition, the benefits for the society and the environment from the processing of alternative fuels for energy purposes, including, among others: reducing the cost of waste disposal, limiting the negative impact on water, soil and air, reducing the amount of waste deposited, acquisition of land; reduction of the greenhouse effect, facilitating the recycling of other fractions, recovery of electricity and heat, and saving conventional energy carriers, were determined. The analysis of risk factors is carried out separately for plants processing waste for alternative fuel production and plants producing energy from this type of fuel. Waste processing plants should pay attention to investment, market (price, interest rate, and currency), business climate, political, and legal risks, as well as weather, seasonal, logistic, technological, and loss of profitability or bankruptcy risks. Similar risks are observed in the case of energy companies, as they operate in the same external environment. Moreover, internal risks may be similar; however, the specific nature of the operation of each enterprise should be taken into account. Energy companies should pay particular attention to the various types of costs that may threaten the stability of operation, especially in the case of regulated energy prices. The risk associated with the inadequate quality of the supplied and stored fuels is important. This risk may disrupt the technological process and reduce the plant’s operational efficiency. Heating plants and combined heat and power plants should also not underestimate the non-catastrophic weather risk, which may lead to a decrease in heat demand and a reduction in business revenues. A comprehensive approach to risk should protect enterprises against possible losses due to various types of threats, including both external and internal threats.
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