Paper discusses an issue of old-time gentry estates landscape formation based on po-lish agricultural textbooks. Theoretical proposals as well as real-life structures of gentry estates on polish lands in pre-parti-tion and post-partition times are analyzed. Article presents both rules of shaping mo-dest gardens of decorative and utilitarian functions alike in the vicinity of mansions, and other components of estate’s land-scape. Partial concurrence between theore-tical postulates and real land use is proven.
Identification of agriculture types in Poland with analysis of spatial associations. The aims of the paper were to identify and characterize contemporary agriculture types in Poland, and evaluate the suitability of the typology used. The analysis was performed on the basis of territorial units (communes, LAU2). The study involved a total of 68 variables characterizing agriculture. Spatial associations found in the data were identified. As the next step, an analysis of local spatial autocorrelation was performed and spatial clusters were identified by LISA and cluster analysis performed by the method of k-means clustering, which identified a total of five agriculture types. The study presented the spatial distribution of individual types of agriculture and their characteristics. Furthermore, the method was shown to be especially useful for investigating agricultural phenomena characterized by a large number of traits in relation to a large number of territorial units.
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element present in the lithosphere, and it constitutes one of the major inorganic nutrient elements of many plants. Although Si is a nonessential nutrient element, its beneficial role in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively reduce disease severity in many plant pathosystems. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated increased plant disease resistance involve improving mechanical properties of cell walls, activating multiple signaling pathways leading to the expression of defense responsive genes and producing antimicrobial compounds. This article highlights the importance and applicability of Si fertilizers in integrated disease management for crops.
Bollworms comprise the most harmful and economically relevant species of lepidopteran. Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (D.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is native to America and affects many crops. Tobacco is an industrial crop in which methods of pest control rely mainly on the application of insecticides. To develop new eco-friendly strategies against insect pests it is very important to overcome the side effects of insecticides. The utilization of fungal entomopathogens as endophytes is a new perspective that may accomplish good results. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. to affect H. gelotopoeon life parameters and feeding behavior on tobacco plants. Beauveria bassiana LPSC 1215 as an endophyte did not reduce the amount of vegetal material consumed by H. gelotopoeon larvae but affected the life cycle period of the plague, particularly the larval and adult stages. Also, egg fertility was affected since adults laid eggs that were not able to hatch. The results of this investigation provide new information on endophytic entomopathogen potential to be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.
Social and Economic Costs of Spatial Disorder in Agriculture. The main objective of the study was the identification of the phenomena of chaos in the structure and spatial organization of agriculture, that is the agrarian fragmentation of farms, exclusion of land from agricultural production in suburban zones and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. These processes cause a major increase in economic and social costs, which results in the loss of resources and spatial disorder in agriculture. An attempt was made to estimate the costs of these processes in economic, social and environmental terms. The economic dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is manifested by negative results in the production and consumption sphere related most often to high labour costs, and consequently to low incomes. The social dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is demonstrated by the effects of de-agrarization processes and deformation of social structures. De-agrarization means the processes of agricultural area reduction, extensification and fallowing as well as an increasingly limited significance of agriculture as a workplace and a reduction in the source of income by rural residents. A conducted analysis of spatial disorder in agriculture resulting from the lack of appropriate regulation and taxation systems as well as historical factors allowed determining direct and indirect results influencing the structure and spatial organization of agriculture. Direct results include: a chessboard pattern of agricultural land, marginalization of the agricultural function in rural areas which mostly applies to suburban zones, unregulated ownership of farmland, its unjustified designation for other purposes, a decrease in biodiversity in agriculture and fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. Indirect results include: an increase in the costs of agricultural production, expensive agricultural-installation plans, loss of direct payments, easement appurtenant, the emergence of human-environment conflicts and major transformations of the agricultural landscape in a suburban zone.