Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a compound responsible for the greenhouse effect. One of the methods of CO2 capture from the gas stream is adsorption process. In this paper, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2 on zeolite 13X were measured at different temperatures (293.15 K, 303.15 K, 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 348.15 K, 373.15 K, 393.15 K) and under pressures up to 2 MPa. These data were obtained using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer (IGA-002, Hiden Isochema, UK). Selected multitemperature adsorption isotherm equations, namely Toth, Langmuir–Freundlich, and, Langmuir were correlated with experimental data.
In order to investigate the mechanism of adsorption of reactive dyes from the textile industry on ash from heating plant produced by brown coal combustion, some characteristic sorption constants are determined using Langergren adsorption equations for pseudo-ﬁ rst and pseudo-second order. Combined kinetic models of pseudo-ﬁrst order and pseudo-second order can provide a simple but satisfactory explanation of the adsorption process for a reactive dye. According to the characteristic diagrams and results of adsorption kinetic parameters of reactive dyes on ashes, for the applied amounts of the adsorbents and different initial dye concentrations, it can be concluded that the rate of sorption is fully functionally described by second order adsorption model. According to the results, the rate constant of pseudo-second order decreases with increasing initial dye concentration and increases with increasing amount of adsorbent – ash.
The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as the observance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%. Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily production without filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production. Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and serve for a sustained conservation of environment. A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remains affordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.
This research was conducted to study the adsorption of ammonium ions onto pumice as a natural and low-cost adsorbent. The physico-chemical properties of the pumice granular were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modeling and optimization of a NH4+ sorption process was accomplished by varying four independent parameters (pumice dosage, initial ammonium ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time) using a central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions for maximum removal of NH4+ (70.3%) were found to be 100 g, 20 mg/l, 300 rpm and 180 min, for pumice dosage, initial NH4+ ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time. It was found that the NH4+ adsorption on the pumice granular was dependent on adsorbent dosage and initial ammonium ion concentration. NH4+ was increased due to decrease the initial concentration of NH4 and increase the contact time, mixing rate and amount of adsorbent.
In the present study the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 dye on the hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowders was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments were performed by monitoring the adsorbent dosage, contact time, dye solution concentration, pH and temperature. At pH 3 and 20°C, high dye removal rates of about 95.58% and 86.95% for the uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatites, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic studies indicated the dye adsorption onto nanohydroxyapatite samples to follow a pseudo-second order model. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best to represent the equilibrium with experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity of uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatite samples has been found to be 90.09 mg/g and 74.97 mg/g, respectively.
The usefulness of untreated powdered eggshell as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The most important parameters affecting the adsorption process, including the pH and ionic strength, were examined. The adsorption characteristics of PCP onto eggshell were evaluated in terms of kinetic and equilibrium parameters. The kinetic data were studied in terms of the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The pseudo-second order model best described the adsorption kinetics. Using the Langmuir equation, the monolayer adsorption capacity of eggshell for PCP was found to be 0.127 mg/g. The results showed that PCP can be effectively removed from aqueous solution employing eggshell as a cheap adsorbent.
One of the most important problems concerning contaminant transport in the ground is the problem related to the definition of parameters characterizing the adsorption capacity of ground for the chosen contaminants relocating with groundwater. In this paper, for chloride and sulfate indicators relocating in sandy ground, the numerical values of retardation factors (Ra) (treated as average values) and pore groundwater velocities with adsorption (ux/Ra) (in micro-pore ground spaces) are taken into consideration. Based on 2D transport equation the maximal dimensionless concentration values (C*max c) in the chosen ground cross-sections were calculated. All the presented numerical calculations are related to the unpublished measurement series which was marked in this paper as: October 1982. For this measurement series the calculated concentration values are compared to the measured concentration ones (C*max m) given recently to the author of this paper. In final part of this paper the parameters characterizing adsorption capacity (Ra, ux/Ra) are also compared to the same parameters calculated for the two earlier measurement series. Such comparison also allowed for the estimation of a gradual in time depletion of adsorption capacity for the chosen sandy ground.
This study investigates the influence of four imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) present in wastewater on the activated sludge process. In addition, experiments with inactivated sludge to assess the capacity of this sorbent to remove ILs from the wastewater were conducted. It occurred that the presence of ionic liquids in wastewater reduces biomass growth and size of the sludge flocs. The strongest effect has been found for IL 6 (1-hexyl-2H-3-methyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium iodide) with the longest alkyl chain length. Also, the degree of ILs removal increases with the alkyl chain length and decreases with the increase of initial concentration of ILs in wastewater. IL 6 reaches the highest degree of ILs removal from wastewater but inhibits the biomass growth and growth of sludge flocs in a greater extent than other tested compounds. Moreover, it was confirmed that newly synthesized ionic liquids can be adsorbed onto inactivated sludge. IL 6 could be adsorbed in a higher degree than other ionic liquids. This adsorption was described by Langmuir isotherm, whereas adsorption of other ionic liquids was described by Freundlich isotherm.
Magnetite nanoparticles have become a promising material for scientific research. Among numerous technologies of their synthesis, co-precipitation seems to be the most convenient, less time-consuming and cheap method which produces fine and pure iron oxide particles applicable to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to investigate how the co-precipitation synthesis parameters, such as temperature and base volume, influence the magnetite nanoparticles ability to separate heavy metal ions. The synthesis were conducted at nine combinations of different ammonia volumes - 8 cm3, 10 cm3, 15 cm3 and temperatures - 30°C, 60°C, 90°C for each ammonia volume. Iron oxides synthesized at each combination were examined as an adsorbent of seven heavy metals: Cr(VI), Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The representative sample of magnetite was characterized using XRD, SEM and BET methods. It was observed that more effective sorbent for majority of ions was produced at 30°C using 10 cm3 of ammonia. The characterization of the sample produced at these reaction conditions indicate that pure magnetite with an average crystallite size of 23.2 nm was obtained (XRD), the nanosized crystallites in the sample were agglomerated (SEM) and the specific surface area of the aggregates was estimated to be 55.64 m2·g-1 (BET). The general conclusion of the work is the evidence that magnetite nanoparticles have the ability to adsorb heavy metal ions from the aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of the process depends on many factors such as kind of heavy metal ion or the synthesis parameters of the sorbent.
This study investigates the estimated adsorption efficiency of artificial Nickel (II) ions with perlite in an aqueous solution using artificial neural networks, based on 140 experimental data sets. Prediction using artificial neural networks is performed by enhancing the adsorption efficiency with the use of Nickel (II) ions, with the initial concentrations ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 10 mg/L, the adsorbent dosage ranging from 0.1 mg to 2 mg, and the varying time of effect ranging from 5 to 30 mins. This study presents an artificial neural network that predicts the adsorption efficiency of Nickel (II) ions with perlite. The best algorithm is determined as a quasi-Newton back-propagation algorithm. The performance of the artificial neural network is determined by coefficient determination (R2), and its architecture is 3-12-1. The prediction shows that there is an outstanding relationship between the experimental data and the predicted values.
In this review, research carried out on sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SESMR) process is presented and discussed. The reactor types employed to carry out this process, fixed packed bed and fluidized bed reactors, are characterized as well as their main operating conditions indicated. Also the concepts developed and investigations performed by the main research groups involved in the subject are summarized. Next the catalysts and CO2 sorbents developed to carry out SE-SMR are characterized and the relationships describing the reaction and sorption kinetics are collected. A general approach to model the process is presented as well as results obtained for a calculation example, which demonstrate the main properties of SE-SMR.
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil with Methylobacterium extorquens as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The copper concentrations in the samples of the polluted river water and CuCl2 solutions treated by the natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil (ECS) have been determined by spectrophotometric method. Firstly, the surface of ECS was modified with M. extorquens and surface functionality was increased. Then, the adsorption of Cu (II) from solution phases was studied with respect to varying metal concentration, pH, and temperature and agitation time. The maximum adsorption of Cu (II) for natural and bacteria-modified Erzurum clayey soil was observed at pH: 5.0. At different copper concentrations, copper adsorption analysis was performed on 1 g using clay soil or modified clay soil. Maximum adsorption of Cu (II) was obtained as 45.7 and 48.1 mg g-1 at initial concentration (50 mg/50 mL) and optimal conditions by natural and bacteria-modified clay soil, respectively. The copper concentration was decreased in the substantial amount of the leachates solutions of natural and bacteria-modified clay soil. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu (II) ions. The results showed that modified clay soil had a high level of adsorption capacity for copper ion. The various thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were analyzed to observe the nature of adsorption. The structural properties of the natural and bacteria-modified-ECS have been characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. Consequently, it was concluded that the bacteria-modified clay soil could be successfully used for the removal of the copper ions from the aqueous solutions.
A laboratory study was performed to study the effects of various operating factors, viz. adsorbent dose, contact time, solution pH, stirring speed, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) onto coal fly ash supported nZnO (CFAZ). The adsorption capacity increases with increase in the adsorbent amount, contact time, pH, stirring speed and initial TPT concentration, and decrease with increase in the solution temperature. The adsorption data have been analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models to determine the mechanistic parameters associated with the adsorption process while the kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Elovich, fractional power and intraparticle diffusivity kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters of the process were also determined. The results of this study show that 0.5 g of CFAZ was able to remove up to 99.60% of TPT from contaminated natural seawater at 60 min contact time, stirring speed of 200 rpm and at a pH of 8. It was also found that the equilibrium and kinetic data fitted better to Freundlich and pseudo second-order models, respectively. It can therefore be concluded that CFAZ can be effectively used for shipyard process wastewater treatment
The adsorption of lead ions onto a zeolite bearing tuff (stilbite) from synthetic acid aqueous solution and acid mine drainage taken from Sasa mine, Macedonia, is elaborated in this paper. The results present that adsorption occurs effi ciently in both of cases. The physical and chemical properties of the used natural material, zeolite bearing tuff, are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. The concentration of metal ions in solution before and after treatment is obtained by AES-ICP. The effectivity of zeolite bearing tuff is determined through a series of experiments under batch conditions from single ion solutions, whereby the main parameters are the effects of initial pH of solution, mass of adsorbent, initial metal concentration in solution, contacting time and competing cations. The maximum capacity of zeolite bearing tuff for removal of lead ions from solution is determined by equilibrium studies. The experimental obtained data are fi tted with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models. The experimental data are better fi tted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Zeolite bearing tuff is effective adsorbent for treating acid mine drainage. The results showed that 99% of lead ions are removed from acid mine drainage, i.e. the concentration of lead ions from 0.329 mg/dm3 decrease to 0.002 mg/dm3 . The pH value of acid mine drainage from 3.90 after treatment with zeolite bearing tuff increases to 5.36.
This paper presents a general overview of 2D mathematical models for both the inorganic and the organic contaminants moving in an aquifer, taking into consideration the most important processes that occur in the ground. These processes affect, to a different extent, the concentration reduction values for the contaminants moving in a groundwater. In this analysis, the following processes have been taken into consideration: reversible physical non-linear adsorption, chemical and biological reactions (as biodegradation/biological denitrification) and radioactive decay (for moving radionuclides). Based on these 2D contaminant transport models it has been possible to calculate numerically the dimensionless concentration values with and without all the chosen processes in relation to both the chosen natural site (piezometers) and the chosen contaminants.In this paper, it has also been possible to compare all the numerically calculated concentration values to the measured concentration ones (in the chosen earlier piezometers) in relation to both the new unpublished measurement series of May 1982 and the new set of parameters used in these 2D contaminant transport models (as practical verification of these models).
Point of present exploration was to figure out the anticorrosion activity of Acacia Cyanophylla (Saligna leaves) extract on the corrosion of mild steel in dilute sulfuric acid medium, using weight loss measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result of the study revealed that the extract act as a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time showed a positive effect on inhibition efficiency. EIS exhibited one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. The increase of phase shift (n) in presence of (ACLE) lower surface roughness. This change reveals the adsorption of the inhibitor compound on the steel surface. According to the results of weight loss measurements, the adsorption of the extract on the steel surface can be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The inhibition mechanism of (ACLE) molecules involves physical interaction between the inhibitor and metal surface. Additionally, Protective film formation against acid attack was confirmed by FT-IR and AFM techniques.
A review is given on a number of colloidal phenomena with special reference to their applicability to nanoparticles. Phenomena addressed include preparation, electric double layers and their characterization, electrokinetics, van der Waals and Lifshits forces, electric and steric particle interaction.