Discontinuous coefficients in the Poisson equation lead to the weak discontinuity in the solution, e.g. the gradient in the field quantity exhibits a rapid change across an interface. In the real world, discontinuities are frequently found (cracks, material interfaces, voids, phase-change phenomena) and their mathematical model can be represented by Poisson type equation. In this study, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is used to solve the formulated discontinuous problem. The XFEM solution introduce the discontinuity through nodal enrichment function, and controls it by additional degrees of freedom. This allows one to make the finite element mesh independent of discontinuity location. The quality of the solution depends mainly on the assumed enrichment basis functions. In the paper, a new set of enrichments are proposed in the solution of the Poisson equation with discontinuous coefficients. The global and local error estimates are used in order to assess the quality of the solution. The stability of the solution is investigated using the condition number of the stiffness matrix. The solutions obtained with standard and new enrichment functions are compared and discussed.
In the paper, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is combined with a recovery procedure in the analysis of the discontinuous Poisson problem. The model considers the weak as well as the strong discontinuity. Computationally efficient low-order finite elements provided good convergence are used. The combination of the XFEM with a recovery procedure allows for optimal convergence rates in the gradient i.e. as the same order as the primary solution. The discontinuity is modelled independently of the finite element mesh using a step-enrichment and level set approach. The results show improved gradient prediction locally for the interface element and globally for the entire domain.
Nominal strength reduction in cross ply laminates of [0/90]2s is observed in tensile tests of glass fiber composite laminates having central open hole of diameters varying from 2 to 10 mm. This is well known as the size effect. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is implemented to simulate the fracture process and size effect (scale effect) in the glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates weakened by holes or notches. The analysis shows that XFEM results are in good agreement with the experimental results specifying nominal strength and in good agreement with the analytical results based on the cohesive zone model specifying crack opening displacement and the fracture process zone length.
The essential parameters for structure integrity assessment in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) are Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs). The estimation of SIFs can be done by analytical or numerical techniques. The analytical estimation of SIFs is limited to simple structures with non-complicated boundaries, loads and supports. An effective numerical technique for analyzing problems with singular fields, such as fracture mechanics problems, is the extended finite element method (XFEM). In the paper, XFEM is applied to compute an actual stress field in a two-dimensional cracked body. The XFEM is based on the idea of enriching the approximation in the vicinity of the discontinuity. As a result, the numerical model consists of three types of elements: non-enriched elements, fully enriched elements (the domain of whom is cut by a discontinuity), and partially enriched elements (the so-called blending elements). In a blending element, some but not all of the nodes are enriched, which adds to the approximation parasitic term. The error caused by the parasitic terms is partly responsible for the degradation of the convergence rate. It also limits the accuracy of the method. Eliminating blending elements from approximation space and replacing them with standard elements, together with applying shifted-basis enrichment, makes it possible to avoid the problem. The numerical examples show improvements in results when compared with the standard XFEM approach.
The paper deals with the application of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to simulations of discrete macro-cracks in plain concrete specimens under tension, bending and shear. Fundamental relationships and basic discrete constitutive laws were described. The most important aspects of the numerical implementation were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the method were outlined.