Presented are results of a research on usability of an innovative reclamation process of microwave-hardened moulding sands containing water-glass, combined with activation of binder. After each subsequent stage of reclamation, quality of the reclaimed material was determined on the grounds of measurements of permeability and results of screen analysis. The reclaimed material was next used again to prepare new moulding sand. The sandmix based on high-silica sand prepared with water-glass grade 145, was subject to the following cyclical treatment operations: mixing components, consolidation, microwave hardening, cooling, heating the mould up to 800 °C, cooling to ambient temperature, mechanical reclamation dry and wet. It was found that the used-up and reclaimed sandmix containing water-glass is susceptible to the applied activation process of thermally reacted film of binder and, in addition, it maintains good quality and technological properties of high-silica base. Observations of surfaces of reclaimed high-silica grains with activated film of reacted inorganic binder were carried-out using a scanning microscope. Thanks to properly selected reclamation parameters, the high-silica base can be reused even five times, thus reducing demand for fresh aggregate and inorganic binder.
In the paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of preliminary wetting of high-silica base during preparation of moulding sands containing a selected grade of sodium water-glass, designed for hardening by traditional drying or by electromagnetic microwaves at 2.45 GHz. In the research, some water was dosed during stirring the sandmix before adding 1.5 wt% of the binder that was unmodified sodium water-glass grade 137, characterised by high molar module within 3.2 to 3.4. Scope of the examinations included determining the effect of wetting the base on mechanical parameters like compression, bending and tensile strength, as well as on technological parameters like permeability, abrasion resistance and apparent density. The research revealed a significant positive effect of adding water to wet surfaces of high-silica base grains on mechanical properties and quality of moulding sands hardened by physical methods, in particular by microwave heating
In the paper, an attempt is made to explain the previously observed increased effectiveness of utilising hydrated sodium water-glass grade 137 after hardening moulding sands with selected physical methods. In the modified process of preparing sandmixes, during stirring components, water as a wetting additive was introduced to the sand-binder system. Presented are examination results of influence of faster microwave heating and slower traditional drying of the so-prepared moulding sands on their tensile and bending strength, calculated per weight fraction of the binder. The measurement results were confronted with SEM observations of linking bridges and with chemical analyses of grain surfaces of high-silica base. On the grounds of comprehensive evaluation of hardened moulding sands, positive effects were found of the applied physical process of binder dehydration and presence of the wetting additive. It was observed that introduction of this additive during stirring, before adding the binder, improves flowing the binder to the places where durable linking bridges are created. It was also found that the applied methods of hardening by dehydration enable creation of very durable linking bridges, strongly connected with the sand base, which results in damages of high-silica grain surfaces, when the bridges are destroyed.
Presented are results of a research on the possibility of using artificial neural networks for forecasting mechanical and technological parameters of moulding sands containing water-glass, hardened in the innovative microwave heating process. Trial predictions were confronted with experimental results of examining sandmixes prepared on the base of high-silica sand, containing various grades of sodium water-glass and additions of a wetting agent. It was found on the grounds of obtained values of tensile strength and permeability that, with use of artificial neural networks, it is possible complex forecasting mechanical and technological properties of these materials after microwave heating and the obtained data will be used in further research works on application of modern analytic methods for designing production technology of high-quality casting cores and moulds.
In recent years, an increasing interest in sandmixes containing inorganic binders has been observed. These binders, including water-glass, are harmless for the environment, neutral for humans, and relatively cheap. In spite of numerous advantages, their wide application is restricted by poor knock-out properties and problems related to rebonding. Therefore, numerous researches aimed at eliminating the disadvantages of water-glass binders are directed, among others, to modifying the structure of hydrated sodium silicate or to applying new hardening techniques. An innovative method of rapid hardening by microwave heating, permitting the restriction of the quantity of binder used and thus improving knock-out properties, meets the expectations of present-day foundries. In this paper, available information is compiled on microwave hardening of water-glass containing sandmixes; furthermore, the costs of practical application of this technology are evaluated on the grounds of the authors' own research.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
The nanocomposites based on water glass matrix were attempted in the study. Nanoparticles of ZnO, Al2O3 or MgO in organic solutions were applied into water glass matrix in the amounts of: 1.5; 3; 4 or 5 mas. %. Wettability of the quartz sad by the nanocomposites based on water glass matrix was determined by testing changes of the wetting angle θ in time τ for the system: quartz – binder in non-stationary state, by means of the device for measuring wetting angles. Wettability measurements were carried out under isothermal conditions at an ambient temperature (20 – 25 oC). The modification improves wettability of quartz matrix by water glass, which is effective in improving strength properties of hardened moulding sands. Out of the considered modifiers in colloidal solution of propyl alcohol water glass modified by MgO nanoparticles indicated the smallest values of the equilibrium wetting angle θr. This value was equal app. 11 degrees and was smaller no less than 40 degrees than θr value determined for not modified water glass. Viscosity η of nanocomposites based on water glass matrix was determined from the flow curve, it means from the empirically determined dependence of the shearing stress τ on shear rate γ: τ = f (γ) (1), by means of the rotational rheometer. Measurements were carried out at a constant temperature of 20 oC. The modification influences the binder viscosity. This influence is conditioned by: amount of the introduced modifier as well as dimensions and kinds of nanoparticles and organic solvents. The viscosity increase of the modified binder does not negatively influence its functional properties.
Abstract An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide on the structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgO in propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.%) and structural changes were determined by measurement of the FT-IR absorption spectra.
The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of a new product added to water glass-containing foundry sands hardened with ethylene glycol diacetate. The new additive designated by the symbol "B" is a composition of aqueous solutions of modified polyalcohols, improving the sand knocking out properties. The scope of studies included testing various mechanical and technological properties of foundry sand mixtures, such as permeability, friability, life cycle of cores and knocking out properties. In the technological studies, two types of water glass with different values of the silica modulus and density, designated as R145 and R150, were used. Moulding sands were prepared with the additive "B". For comparison, reference sands with water glass but without the additive "B" were also made. In Part I of the article, the results of studies of the effect of additive "B" on the properties of foundry sands with water glass hardened by CO2 blowing were discussed.
The article takes into consideration the researches concerning inserting the Glassex additive to the microwaved-hardened and selfhardened moulding sands with water glass. In the research different types of ester hardeners to self-hardened moulding sands with water glass were used. The influence of Glassex additive on retained strength of moulding sands with different hardeners and prepared by different technologies of hardening were tested. The influence of different hardeners and the technology of hardening on retained strength of moulding sand with water glass and the Glassex additive were also estimated.
The paper presents the results of basic research on the influence of the properties of sand grains on electrical properties of water glass moulding sands. It shows electrical properties of the main component – sand grains, crucial to the kinetics of moulding sands heating, such as permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. Measurements were carried out with the use of the perturbation method for silica, chromite and olivine sands of different mineral, chemical composition and particle size distribution, as well as for moulding sands with water glass grade 145. Analysis of the results of measurements of electrical properties shows that all moulding sands are characterized by a similar permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. It was found that the electrical properties and the quantity and quality of other components may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the microwave heating of moulding sands with sand grains. In determining the ability to efficiently absorb the microwave radiation for mixtures which moulding sands are, the impact of all components influencing their individual technological parameters should be taken into account.
The aim of the present study was to develop a modifier for water glass. The method of thermal generation of metal oxide nanoparticles was adapted and used in the research. Nanoparticles of ZnO from the thermal decomposition of basic zinc carbonate were used. A method for the modifier introduction was developed, and the effect of modifier content and organic solvent type on the physico-chemical properties of binder (viscosity) and quartz wettability was determined. Binder viscosity was examined from the flow curves plotted with the help of a RHEOTEST 2 rotational rheometer equipped with proper software. Quartz wettability was determined examining timerelated changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system, until full stabilisation of the angle value has been achieved. Binder modification was carried out on sodium water glass designated as R"145". The water glass modifiers were suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol and methanol at a fixed concentration of c = 0.3 M and with the size of nanoparticles comprised in a range of <61 - 981 nm>. Water glass modification with the suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in methanol and propanol showed the effect of modifier on the water glass viscosity and quartz wettability. This effect depends on the type of alcohol used. The ZnO suspension in propanol (alcohol with a longer hydrocarbon chain) affects more strongly the viscosity of binder and quartz wettability than the methanol suspension.