Progress in UV treatment applications requires new compact and sensor constructions. In the paper a hybrid (organic-inorganic) rare-earth-based polymeric UV sensor construction is proposed. The efficient luminescence of poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) matrix doped by europium was used for testing the optical sensor (optrode) construction. The europium complex assures effective luminescence in the visible range with well determined multi-peak spectrum emission enabling construction of the optrode. The fabricated UV optical fibre sensor was used for determination of Nd:YAG laser intensity measurements at the third harmonic (355 nm) in the radiation power range 5.0-34.0 mW. The multi-peak luminescence spectrum was used for optimization of the measurement formula. The composition of luminescent peak intensity enables to increase the slope of sensitivity up to −2.8 mW-1. The obtained results and advantages of the optical fibre construction enable to apply it in numerous UV detection systems.
The influence of ambient solar UV-A or UV-B radiation on growth responses was investigated in three varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) after exclusion of solar UV-A/B radiation: JK-35, IH-63 and Khandwa-2. Cotton plants were grown from seeds in UV-exclusion chambers lined with selective UV filters to exclude either UV-B (280-315 nm) or UV-A/B (280-400 nm) from the solar spectrum under field conditions. Excluding UV-B and UV-A/B significantly increased plant height, leaf area and dry weight accumulation in all three varieties of cotton. The varieties differed considerably in their sensitivity to ambient UV-A/B. Khandwa-2 was most sensitive and JK-35 least sensitive to ambient solar UV. We monitored the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), as well as the level of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (ASA), in primary leaves of the most UV-sensitive variety (Khandwa-2). The level of UV-B-absorbing substances was significantly decreased by exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-A/B. Exclusion of solar UV decreased the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes monitored and the level of ascorbic acid versus control plants (+UV-A/B) grown under filters transparent to solar UV. Reduction of the antioxidant defense after UV exclusion indicates that ambient solar UV exerts significant stress and induces some reactive oxygen species to accumulate, which in turn retards the growth and development of cotton plants. Ambient solar UV stresses cotton plants, shifting their metabolism towards defense against solar UV. Exclusion of solar UV eliminates the need for that defense and leads to enhancement of primary metabolism.
Antarctic plants experience UV−B stress and for their survival they have been showing various adaptive strategies. The first line of defence is to screen UV−B radiation before it reaches the cell, then to minimize damage within the cells through other protective strategies, and finally to repair damage once it has occurred. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study lichen: Dermatocarpon sp. and Acarospora gwynnii under natural UV and below UV filter frames in the Indian Antarctic Station Maitri region of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics, total carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied. The change in total phenolics and total carotenoid content was significant in both Dermatocarpon sp. and A. gwynnii indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV−B radiations, whereas the change in chlorophyll content was not significant in both lichen species.
The objective of the paper is to use life cycle assessment to compare environmental impact of different technologies used in the process of water disinfection. Two scenarios are developed for water disinfection life cycle at ZUW Raba water treatment plant: (1) historical, in which gaseous chlorine is used as a disinfectant and (2) actual, in which UV radiation and electrolytically generated sodium hypochlorite are used for that purpose. Primary data is supplemented with ecoinvent 3 database records. Environmental impact is assessed by IMPACT2002+ method and its midpoint and endpoint indicators that are calculated with the use of SimaPro 8.4 software. The focus of the assessment is on selected life cycle phases: disinfection process itself and the water distribution process that follows. The assessment uses the data on ﬂows and emissions streams as observed in the Raba plant. As the results of primal analysis show, a change of disinfectant results in quantitative changes in THMs and free chlorine in water supplied to the water supply network. The results of analysis conﬁrm the higher potential of THMs formation and higher environmental impact of the combined method of UV/NaClO disinfection in distribution phase and in whole life cycle, mainly due to the increase of human toxicity factors. However, during the disinfection phase, gaseous chlorine use is more harmful for environment. But the ﬁnal conclusion states that water quality indicators are not signiﬁcant in the context of LCA, while both disinfection and distribution phases are concerned.
Due to the difficulty of detecting traces of organic acid mixture in an aqueous sample and the complexity of resolving UV-Vis spectra effectively, a combinatory method based on a self-made radical electric focusing solid phase extraction (REFSPE) device, UV-Vis detection and partial least squares (PLS) calculation is proposed here. In this study, REFSPE was used to enhance the extraction process of analytes between the aqueous phase and the membrane phase to enrich the trace of mixed organic acid efficiently. Then, the analytes, which were eluted from the adsorption film by ethanol with the assistance of an ultrasonic cleaning machine, were detected with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. After that, the PLS method was introduced to solve the problem of overlapping peaks in UV-Vis spectra of mixed substances and to quantify each compound. The linearly dependent coefficients between the predicted value of the model and the actual concentration of the sample were all higher than 0.99. The limit values of detection for benzoic acid, phthalic acid and p-toluene sulfonic acid were found at 9.9 #22;g/L, 12.2 #22;g/L and 13.8 #22;g/L with the relative recovery values between 84.8% and 117.9%. The RSD (n = 20) values of each component are 1.17%, 1.11% and 0.86%, respectively. Therefore, the proposed combined method can determine traces of complex materials in an aqueous sample efficiently and has wonderful potential applications.
An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad). This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.
The paper presents a study of the performance of some selected UV detectors. Unlike many similar works, the obtained data refer to commercial photodiodes (not only to detector materials). The main task of the research was to determine the influence of the operating temperature and annealing on the detector spectral responsiveness. A comparison of the results obtained for the photodiodes made of GaN and SiC was also performed. Although both kinds of detectors can work at high temperatures for a long time, some modification of their properties was observed. However, for GaN and SiC photodiodes, this modification has a substantially different nature. It is very important for some applications, e.g. fire alarms and a military equipment.
This study examined the effects of UV-B radiation and allelochemical stress induced by ferulic acid (FA) on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 184.108.40.206) at metabolic and molecular levels in two cucumber genotypes differing in tolerance to cold and disease, in order to determine any interaction between stress effects and genotype response. Stresses were applied simultaneously, sequentially, and singly. In both genotypes, several days of UV radiation retarded growth up to 36%. The effect of FA was not significant. The response to a particular stress, including the effect on PAL activation, was enhanced by simultaneous application of the two stresses. PAL transcription was not correlated with the increase of PAL activity. Exposure to UV-B, FA, and combined UV-B and FA was detrimental to both genotypes but to different extents. The response was not correlated with the genotype of cold and disease sensitivity. PAL activity and its transcription seem to be involved in UV and allelochemical stress, but not related to the plants' tolerance of these stresses.
In experiments with short-pulse lasers the measurement control of the energy of the laser pulse is of crucial importance. Generally it is difficult to measure the amplitude of the pulses of short-pulse lasers using electronic devices, their response time being longer than the duration of the laser pulses. The electric response of the detector is still too fast to be directly digitized therefore a peak-hold unit can be used to allow data processing for the computer. In this paper we present a device which measures the energy of UV short (fs) pulses shot-byshot, digitizes and sends the data to the PC across an USB interface. The circuit is based on an analog peak detect and hold unit and the use of fiber optical coupling between the PC and the device provides a significant improvement to eliminate potential ground loops and to reduce conductive and radiated noise as well. The full development is open source and has been made available to download from our web page (http://www.noise.inf.u-szeged.hu/Instruments/PeakHold/).
The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.
The spectroscopic FT-IR and FT-Raman methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands (as a novel group binders BioCo). The cross-linking was performed by physical agent, applying the UV-radiation. The results of structural studies (IR, Raman) confirm the overlapping of the process of cross-linking polymer composition PAA/CMS-Na in UV radiation. Taking into account the ingredients and structure of the polymeric composition can also refer to a curing process in a binder - mineral matrix mixture. In the system of bindermineral matrix under the influence of ultraviolet radiation is also observed effect of binding. However, the bonding process does not occur in the entire volume of the investigated system, but only on the surface, which gives some possibilities for application in the use of UV curing surface of cores, and also to cure sand moulds in 3D printing technology
The possibility of removing organic compounds from wastewater originating from the photochemical production of printed circuit boards by use of waste acidification and disposal of precipitated photopolymer in the first stage and the UV-Fenton method in a second stage has been presented. To optimize the process of advanced oxidation, the RSM (Response Surface Methodology) for three independent factors was applied, i.e. pH, the concentration of Fe(II) and H2O2 concentration. The use of optimized values of individual parameters in the process of wastewater treatment caused a decrease in the concentration of the organic compounds denoted as COD by approx. 87% in the first stage and approx. 98% after application of both processes. Precipitation and the decomposition of organic compounds was associated with a decrease of wastewater COD to below 100 mg O2/L whereas the initial value was 5550 mg O2/L. Decomposition of organic compounds and verification of the developed model of photopolymers removal was also carried out with use of alternative H2O2 sources i.e. CaO2, MgO2, and Na2CO3·1,5H2O2.