Twenty six specimens of the polychaete Eulalia picta were found in finegrained sand tubes. Material was collected in the Antarctic fjord, Admiralty Bay at the depth of about 100 m. The comparison of tube sediment with the sediment composition at the collection site demonstrated that tubes were created with a high degree of particle selection. Our findings might suggest presence of the tube-building behavior in E. picta or show that this species is a highly specialized predator crawling into the tubes of other sessile polychaetes and uses their tubes as protective cases.
The issues connected with the complex design of various facilities, including up-to-date boiler equipment as well as the ways of organizing the space around them, are the reasons why there is often a lack of room for mounting a flowmeter in accordance with the recommendations of manufacturers. In most cases the problem is associated with ensuring sufficient lengths of straight pipe leading into and out of a flowmeter. When this condition cannot be fulfilled, the uncertainty of measurement increases above the value guaranteed by the manufacturer of the flowmeter. This sort of operation problem has encouraged the authors of this paper to undertake research aimed at the analysis of applicability of averaging Pitot tubes in the areas of flow disturbance.
Poor seed set is a limiting factor in alfalfa breeding, as it slows the selection response. One strategy used to overcome this problem is to search for mutations of inflorescence morphology. Long-peduncle (lp), branched-raceme (br) and top-flowering (tf) inflorescence mutations increase the number of flowers per inflorescence, but they do not improve seed set per flower. Here we assessed pollen tube growth in styles of those inflorescence mutants and we observed embryo and endosperm development in seeds 1 to 16 days after pollination (DAP). The number of pollen tubes penetrating the style and the ovary was similar in all tested mutants and in the reference cultivar Radius. At 2 DAP, fertilized ovules were 2.7-3.9 times less numerous in certain inflorescence mutants than in the short-raceme cv. Radius. Ovule degeneration progressed at 2-4 DAP in all analyzed plants. Most ovules were not properly developed in the control cultivar (62%), nor in the forms with mutated inflorescence morphology (69-86%). The number of seeds per pod was lowest in the tf form despite its having the highest number of ovules per ovary. It appears that the number of ovules per pistil is not a crucial factor in seed set in alfalfa when fertilization efficiency is very low. Both poor fertilization and gradual ovule degeneration were factors causing poor seed set in the investigated alfalfa genotypes.
Manual measurements of distribution of gas velocity in conduits of flue gas installations using systems with differential pressure sensors of velocity are often performed for the requirements of determining emissions of dust pollutants from industrial process plants to the atmosphere. The aim is to determine an axial velocity profile. Flows in measuring sections are not always coaxial along the run of the duct; they are characterized by different directions of the velocity vector at various measuring points. The determination of actual directions of vectors of local velocities giving a guarantee of an accurate calculation of the axial velocity is often not possible from the technical point of view and the measurement of the velocity is carried out with the parallel setting of the sensor head in relation to the axis and the walls of the conduit. Then the knowledge of the directional sensitivity of the applied velocity sensor allows either to eliminate the axial velocity measurement error or to take it into account by the uncertainty of this measurement. For specific situations of two-dimensional variation of direction of the velocity vector, the directional sensitivity characteristics and in consequence the characteristics of error have been determined for three sensors adopted to tests: a zero pressure dust sampling probe with the anemometric function as an element of the gravimetric dust sampler and comparatively - two commonly used Pitot tubes: types S and L.