The study presents the summary of the knowledge of energy-active segments of steel buildings adapted to obtain electrical energy (EE) and thermal energy (TE) from solar radiation, and to transport and store TE. The study shows a general concept of the design of energy-active segments, which are separated from conventional segments in the way that allows the equipment installation and replacement. Exemplary solutions for the design of energy-active segments, optimised with respect to the principle of minimum thermal strain and maximum structural capacity and reliability were given . The following options of the building covers were considered: 1) regular structure, 2) reduced structure, 3) basket structure, 4) structure with a tie, high-pitched to allow snow sliding down the roof to enhance TE and EE obtainment. The essential task described in the study is the optimal adaptation of energy-active segments in large-volume buildings for extraction, transportation and storage of energy from solar radiation.
The thermodynamic properties, which are the important bulk properties for solids, have been investigated for ZrB2 under pressure through the quasi harmonic Debye model. The dependences of thermal expansion, Gruneisen parameter, Debye temperature and specific heat on pressure P are successfully obtained. The obtained results are in a good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical data.
Based on the theory of heat transfer, the influence of expansion joints on the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining is discussed. In view of the current expansion joint, the mathematical model of heat transfer and the three dimensional finite element model of ladle lining brick are established. By analyzing the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining brick when the expansion joints are in different sizes, the thermal mechanical stress caused by the severe temperature difference can be reduced by the suitable expansion joint of the lining brick during the ladle baking and working process. The analysis results showed that the thermal mechanical stress which is caused by thermal expansion can be released through the 2 mm expansion joint, which is set in the building process. So we can effectively reduce the thermal mechanical stress of the ladle lining, and there is no risk of steel leakage, thus the service life of ladle can be effectively prolonged.
Trace elements Co, Cr were added to investigate their influence on the microstructure and physical properties of Al-Si extruded alloy. The Co, Cr elements were randomly distributed in the matrix, forms intermetallic phase and their existence were confirmed by XRD, EDS and SEM analysis. With addition of trace elements, the microstructure was modified, Si particle size was reduced and the growth rate of β-(Al5FeSi) phase limited. Compared to parent alloy, hardness and tensile strength were enhanced while the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was significantly reduced by 42.4% and 16.05% with Co and Cr addition respectively. It is considered that the low CTE occurs with addition of Co was due to the formation of intermetallic compound having low coefficient of thermal expansion. The results suggested that Co acts as an effective element in improving the mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy.