The contributions of work-hardening of austenite and the presence of martensite on the hardening of an AISI 304L stainless steel were evaluated based on plastic deformation under different reductions in thickness at two rolling temperatures. The cold deformation temperatures of 300 K and 373 K were chosen to induce strain-hardening plus strain-induced martensitic transformation in the former and strain-hardening in the latter. This made it possible to elucidate the real effects of strengthening mechanisms of metastable austenitic stainless steels during mechanical working.
Characteristics of the microstructure of corrosion-resistant cast 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo duplex steel after introduction of 0.98, 1.67 and 4.3% Si were described. Based on the test results it has been found that silicon addition introduced to the corrosion-resistant cast two-phase duplex steel significantly reduces austenite content in the alloy matrix. Increasing silicon content in the test alloy to 4.3% has resulted, in addition to the elimination of austenite, also in the precipitation of Si-containing intermetallic phases at the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The precipitates were characterized by varying content of Cr and Mo, indicating the presence in the structure of more than one type of the brittle phase characteristic for this group of materials. The simulation using Thermo-Calc software has confirmed the presence of ferrite in all tested alloys. In the material containing 4.3% Si, the Cr and Si enriched precipitates, such as G phase and Cr3Si were additionally observed to occur.
In this work, the 316L austenitic steel based milled and sintered composites with 0.33 wt% and 1 wt% SiC ultra-fine particles addition have been prepared. The high efficient attrition milling provided an efficient size reduction of the 316L steel grains and homogeneous distribution of the SiC nanoparticles before sintering process. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used for compaction of milled powder mixtures. The effect of SiC addition on the milling efficiency and the structure of the composites have been studied. It was found that the amount of ceramic addition did not influence the efficiency of milling process, powder mixtures with flake like grains have been obtained. On the other hand, the intensive milling assured an optimal coverage of 316L stainless steel grains with submicron sized ceramic particles in both cases. The sintered composites showed high densities with the presence of small amount of closed porosities. Structural, mechanical and tribological examinations of 316L/SiC composites have been performed and presented.
The article deals with the influence of chemical composition of martensitic stainless steel for castings GXCrNi13-4 (the 1.4317 material) on mechanical properties and structure of as cast steel after heat treatment. Properties of these martensitic stainless steel are heavily influenced by chemical composition and structure of the material after heat treatment. Structure of these steels after quenching is formed with martensite and residual austenite. When tempering the steel the carbon content in martensite is reduced and gently deposited carbides occur. The way of heat treatment has a major impact on structure of martensitic steels with low carbon content and thus on strength, hardness and elongation to fracture of these steels. Chemical composition of the melt has been treated to the desired composition of the lower, middle and upper bounds of the nickel content in the steel within the limits allowed by the standard. Test blocks were gradually cast from the melt. The influence of the nickel equivalent value on structure and properties of the 1.4317 steel was determined from results of mechanical tests.
Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl- H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L). The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl- H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.