Due to the fact that the landfill deposition of municipal waste with the higher heating value (HHV) than 6 MJ/kg in Poland is prohibited, the application of waste derived fuels for energy production seems to be good option. There is a new combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plant in Zabrze, where varied solid fuels can be combusted. The formation of ashes originating from the combustion of alternative fuels causes a need to find ways for their practical application and demands the knowledge about their properties. Therefore, the present work is devoted to studying the co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and coal, its impact on fly ash quality and the potential application of ashes to synthesis zeolites. The major objectives of this paper is to present the detail characteristics of ash generated during this process by using the advanced instrumental techniques (XRF, XRD, SEM, B ET, TGA). The co-combustion were carried out at 0.1 MWth fluidized bed combustor. The amount of SRF in fuel mixture was 1, 5, 10 and 20%, respectively. The focus is on the comparison the ashes depending on the fuel mixture composition. Generally, the ashes characterise high amounts of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. It is well observed, that the chemical composition of ashes from co-combustion of blends reflects the amount of SRF addition. Considering the chemical composition of studied ashes, they can be utilize as a zeolites A. The main conclusions is that SRF can be successfully combusted with coal in CFB technology and the fly ashes obtained from coal + SRF fuel mixtures can be used to synthesis zeolites.
The process of synchronization of synchronous generators and power electronic converters with the power grid may take on quite different forms. This is due to their specific principles of operation and essential differences in energy conversion process. However, since synchronous generators and power converter often operate in the same utility network, coherent rules should be defined for them. Therefore, this paper aims at a formulation of the uniform and consistent interpretation of synchronization with the power grid for both types of aforementioned units. The author starts from the classic interpretation of synchronization for synchronous generators and power electronic converters, considered as micro-generators, specifies their mathematical and numerical models and then performs simulation tests. Selected synchronization algorithms are described in detail. Simulation tests are used for analysis of the elaboration of outcomes. The results of simulation tests are handled to formulate a uniform interpretation of synchronization for the micro-generation systems considered. Based on the results obtained, appropriate parallels are built between the two systems being compared. It is shown that the synchronization processes are identical regardless of the micro-generation unit considered. Nonetheless, they differ significantly due to their properties in transient states. Inverter systems have higher dynamics but their disadvantage lies in the relatively high sensitivity to disturbances and the complex selection process of the synchronization algorithm.
The ILC is an immense e+e- machine planned since 2004 by a large international collaboration, to be potentially built in Japan . The gigantic size of the whole research infrastructure, the involved human, technical and financial resources, and the pressure of new emerging and potentially soon to be competitive accelerator technologies, make the final building decision quite difficult. A vivid debate is carried on this subject globally by involved accelerator research communities. The European voice is very strong and important in this debate, and has recently been essentially refreshed by clear statements in a few official documents . The final HEP European Strategy Document is just under preparation. This paper is a very modest and subjective voice in this debate originating from Poland, which around 50 researchers are present at the list of 2400 signatories for the original ILC TDR document published in 2013 .