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We talk to Prof. Piotr Homola from the Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków, about his search for cosmic ray ensembles.
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On the basis of a year-long series of actinometric measurements performed in the vicinity of Polish Polar Station at Hornsund, this paper presents the characteristic of the value of solar radiation incoming at the active surface, of absorbed and net radiation. The maximum intensity of the direct solar radiation was 822 Wm-2, the annual sum total of total radiation was 2611 MJm-2, whereas the mean yearly albedo was 59%. The zero-crossing of the 24-hour sums of the net radiation towards negative values occurred at the turn of September and October.
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A novel method of active noise control using adaptive radiation sound sources is investigated. A finite element model of a modal enclosed sound field is excited harmonically, representing a noise field in the low-frequency range. The control sources are comprised of elementary dipole sources for which the driving signals are adjusted by an optimization method. Two set-up cases of the proposed compound sources are investigated. The coupling of the control sources with the modal sound field is discussed. The simulated performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a system with distributed simple sources and the results show the effectiveness of the sources with adaptive radiation for active noise control in small enclosures.
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This paper deals with the problem of the effect of discretization level and certain other parameters characterizing the measurement setup on accuracy of the process of determination of the sound radiation efficiency by means of the Discrete Calculation Method (DCM) described by Hashimoto (2001). The idea behind DCM consists in virtual division of an examined sound radiating structure into rectangular elements each of which is further assumed to contribute to the total radiation effect in the same way as a rigid circular piston having the surface area equal to this of the corresponding virtual element and vibrating in an infinite rigid baffle. The advantage of the method over conventional sound radiation efficiency measurement techniques consists in the fact that instead of acoustic pressure values, source (plate) vibration velocity amplitude values are measured in a selected number of regularly distributed points. In many cases, this allows to determine the sound radiation efficiency with sufficient accuracy, especially for the low frequency regime. The key part of the paper is an analysis of the effect of discretization level (i.e. the choice of the number of points at which vibration amplitude measurements are to be taken with the use of accelerometers) on results obtained with the use of the method and their accuracy. The problem of determining an optimum level of discretization for given excitation frequency range is a very important issue as the labor intensity (time-consuming aspect) of the method is one of its main flaws. As far as the technical aspect of the method is concerned, two different geometrical configurations of the measurement setup were tested.
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Ionizing radiation applied on food eliminates harmful microorganisms, prevents sprouting and delays ripening. All methods for detection of irradiated food are based on physical, chemical, biological or microbiological changes caused by the treatment with ionizing radiation. When minerals are exposed to ionizing radiation, they accumulate radiation energy and store it in the crystal lattice, by which some electrons remain trapped in the lattice. When these minerals are exposed to optical stimulation, trapped electrons are released. The phenomenon, called optically stimulated luminescence or photostimulated luminescence, occurs when released electrons recombine with holes from luminescence centers in the lattice, resulting in emission of light with certain wavelengths. In this paper, the results of measurements performed on seven different samples of herbs and spices are presented. In order to make a comparison between luminescence signals from samples treated with different doses, unirradiated samples are treated with Co-60 with doses of 1 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy. In all cases it was shown that the higher the applied dose, the higher the luminescence signal.
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The presence of more than one solute diffused in fluid mixtures is very often requested for discussing the natural phenomena such as transportation of contaminants, underground water, acid rain and so on. In the paper, the effect of nonlinear thermal radiation on triple diffusive convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid along a horizontal plate is theoretically investigated. Similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are numerically solved using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method along with shooting technique. The impact of several existing physical parameters on velocity, temperature, solutal and nanofluid concentration profiles are analyzed through graphs and tables in detail. It is found that, modified Dufour parameter and Dufour solutal Lewis number enhances the temperature and solutal concentration profiles respectively.
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The results of the application and evaluation of the r.sun model for calculation of the total solar radiation for the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (SW Spitsbergen) are presented. Linke Turbidity Factor (LTF), which is the obligatory parameter for direct and diffused radiation calculations with the r.sun model, is derived here with the empirical formula and meteoro− logical measurements. Few different approaches for calculation of LTF are presented and tested. The r.sun model results, calculated with these various LTF, are evaluated through comparison with total solar radiation measurements gathered at Polish Polar Station. The r.sun model is found to be in good agreement with the measurements for clear sky condi− tions, with the explained variance (R2) close to 0.9. Overall, the model slightly underesti− mates the measured total radiation. Reasonable results were calculated for the cloudiness condition up to 2 octas, and for these r.sun model can be considered as a reliable and flexible tool providing spatial data on solar radiation for the study area.
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Analytical relations, describing the electrical fields of cylindrical piezoceramic radiators with circular polarization as a member of the cylindrical systems with the baffle in the inner cavity, using the related fields method in multiply connected regions were obtained. Comparative analysis of the results of numerical experiments performed on the frequency characteristics of the electric field of the radiating systems for different modes of radiation allow to establish a number of subtle effects of the formation of the electric field of radiators.
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Ground temperature variations have been analysed to the depth of 160 cm, with respect to meteorological elements and short-wave radiation balance. The database of the ground temperature covers a thirteen month-long period (May 1992 – June 1993), which included both the seasons of complete freezing of the ground and thaw. Special attention has been given to the development of perennial permafrost and its spatial distribution. In summer, the depth of thawing ground varied in different types of ground — at the Polish Polar Station, this was ca. 130 cm. The ground froze completely in the first week of October. Its thawing started in June. The snow cover restrained heat penetration in the ground, which hindered the ground thawing process. Cross-correlation shows a significant influence of the radiation balance (K*) on the values of near-surface ground temperatures (r2 = 0.62 for summer).
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This paper presents the first results of measurements of global solar radiation, albedo, ground surface and 2−m air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction carried out in the central part of Spitsbergen Island in the period 2008–2010. The study site was located on the coastal ice−free zone of Petuniabukta (north−western branch of Billefjorden), which was strongly affected by local topography, character of the ground surface, and sea ice extent. Temporal analysis of the selected meteorological parameters shows both strong seasonal and inter−diurnal variation affected by synoptic−scale weather systems, channelling and drainage effects of the fjords and surrounding glaciers. The prevailing pattern of atmospheric circulation primarily determined the variation in global solar radiation, wind speed, ground surface and 2−m air temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that thermal differences between Petuniabukta and the nearest meteorological station (Svalbard Lufthavn) differ significantly due to differences in sea ice concentrations and ice types in the fjords during the winter and spring months.
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This article presents the results of observations of selected fluxes of the radiation balance in north-western Spitsbergen in the years from 2010 to 2014. Measurements were taken in Ny-Ålesund and in the area of Kaffiøyra, on different surface types occurring in the Polar zone: moraine, tundra, snow and ice. Substantial differences in the radiation balance among the various types of surface were observed. The observations carried out in the summer seasons of 2010-2014 in the area of Kaffiøyra demonstrated that the considerable reflection of solar radiation on the Waldemar Glacier (albedo 55%) resulted in a smaller solar energy net income. During the polar day, a diurnal course of the components of the radiation balance was apparently related to the solar elevation angle. When the sun was low over the horizon, the radiation balance became negative, especially on the glacier. Diurnal, annual and multi-annual variations in the radiation balance have a significant influence on the functioning of the environment in polar conditions.
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The operating principles of RFID antennas should be considered differently than it is applied in the classical theory of radio communication systems. The procedure of measuring the radiation pattern of antennas that could be applied to RFID transponders operating in the UHF band is seldom discussed correctly in the scientific literature. The problem consists in the variability of the RFID chip impedance that strongly influences measurement results. The authors propose the proper methodology for determining the radiation pattern with respect to an individual transponder as well as an electronically tagged object. The advantage of the solution consists in the possibility of using components of different measuring systems that are available in typical antenna laboratories. The proposed procedure is particularly important in terms of parameter validation - the identification efficiency and costs of an RFID system implementation can be evaluated properly only on the basis of real values of considered parameters.
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Progress in UV treatment applications requires new compact and sensor constructions. In the paper a hybrid (organic-inorganic) rare-earth-based polymeric UV sensor construction is proposed. The efficient luminescence of poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) matrix doped by europium was used for testing the optical sensor (optrode) construction. The europium complex assures effective luminescence in the visible range with well determined multi-peak spectrum emission enabling construction of the optrode. The fabricated UV optical fibre sensor was used for determination of Nd:YAG laser intensity measurements at the third harmonic (355 nm) in the radiation power range 5.0-34.0 mW. The multi-peak luminescence spectrum was used for optimization of the measurement formula. The composition of luminescent peak intensity enables to increase the slope of sensitivity up to −2.8 mW-1. The obtained results and advantages of the optical fibre construction enable to apply it in numerous UV detection systems.
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This paper presents the results of measurements of the operation of a photovoltaic system, connected to the power grid. The intensity of solar radiation and the ambient temperature in the location of the installation were simultaneously recorded in different weather conditions on selected days throughout the year. For the combined results the analysis of correlation in terms of efficiency of individual exemplary photovoltaic installation was conducted.
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The proper designing of PV systems requires the use of advanced building energy simulation techniques. It allows to design the best position of the PV array, as well as the right quantity of produced energy in different cases. On the other hand the PV efficiency is not only a constant value but changes according to temperature and solar radiation. This paper is devoted to estimate the simultaneous effect of both weather factors on PV efficiency. The task was achieved by numerical simulation and ESP-r software. Computer simulations have been carried out with the use of the Typical Meteorological Year data for Warsaw (52°N 21°E). The greatest influence of temperature on the efficiency of solar energy conversion was observed for crystalline silicon cells. The influence of the boundary conditions assumed in the study is ignored for amorphous silicon cells in the summer period and regardless of the material type in the winter period.
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The paper considers method of determination of solar radiation amount falling on arbitrarily oriented surface of a structure. Provided method allows calculation of influence of structure’s geographical coordinates, spatial orientation of structure’s surface, day of year and time of day on received amount of solar radiation. The method is intended for determination of thermal stresses and deformations of sheet steel structures caused by action of direct solar radiation. Examples show usage of provided method.
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Specific requirements are designed and implemented in electronic and telecommunication systems for received signals, especially high-frequency ones, to examine and control the signal radiation. However, as a serious drawback, no special requirements are considered for the transmitted signals from a subsystem. Different industries have always been struggling with electromagnetic interferences affecting their electronic and telecommunication systems and imposing significant costs. It is thus necessary to specifically investigate this problem as every device is continuously exposed to interferences. Signal processing allows for the decomposition of a signal to its different components to simulate each component. Radiation control has its specific complexities in systems, requiring necessary measures from the very beginning of the design. This study attempted to determine the highest radiation from a subsystem by estimating the radiation fields. The study goal was to investigate the level of radiations received and transmitted from the adjacent systems, respectively, and present methods for control and eliminate the existing radiations. The proposed approach employs an algorithm which is based on multi-component signals, defect, and the radiation shield used in the subsystem. The algorithm flowchart focuses on the separation and of signal components and electromagnetic interference reduction. In this algorithm, the detection process is carried out at the bounds of each component, after which the separation process is performed in the vicinity of the different bounds. The proposed method works based on the Fourier transform of impulse functions for signal components decomposition that was employed to develop an algorithm for separation of the components of the signals input to the subsystem.
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Antarctic plants experience UV−B stress and for their survival they have been showing various adaptive strategies. The first line of defence is to screen UV−B radiation before it reaches the cell, then to minimize damage within the cells through other protective strategies, and finally to repair damage once it has occurred. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study lichen: Dermatocarpon sp. and Acarospora gwynnii under natural UV and below UV filter frames in the Indian Antarctic Station Maitri region of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics, total carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied. The change in total phenolics and total carotenoid content was significant in both Dermatocarpon sp. and A. gwynnii indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV−B radiations, whereas the change in chlorophyll content was not significant in both lichen species.
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Most of sound sources are complex vibroacoustic objects consist of numerous elements. Some coupled vibrating plates of different shapes and sizes can be easily found in urban environments. The main aim of this study is to determine the sound radiation of coupled plates system of practical importance. The investigated vibroacoustic system consist of a thin circular plate coupled with a thick flat baffle with a circular hole. The circular plate has been mounted to the baffle’s hole using screws and two steel rings. The measurement setup was located inside a semi-anechoic chamber to assure the free field conditions. It was necessary to take into account the whole system surface to obtain the radiation efficiency based on the Hashimoto’s method. Such an approach can be troublesome and time-consuming. Therefore, the criterion has been proposed which allows the vibration velocity measurements and calculations to be performed only for the thin plate’s area. An alternative approach has been proposed based on the classical Rayleigh integral formula. Its advantage is a simpler implementation in a computer code. The obtained results have been compared with the theoretical results obtained for the elastically supported circular plate. A good agreement has been obtained at low frequencies.
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Arctic glaciers depend on supply of moisture, mostly from the Atlantic. The snowline is remarkably high in northeast Siberia, remote from this source. Because of differential solar radiation receipt, local glaciers have a northward−facing tendency throughout the Arctic. This is weaker than in dry mid−latitudes but low sun angles enhance the effects of shading, compensating for the broader range of aspects ( i.e. slope directions) illuminated in summer. Statistics from the World Glacier Inventory and other sources show that mass balance differences between slopes of different aspects give both more glaciers, and lower glaciers, facing the favoured direction: usually North. This is clear, for example, for local glaciers (and for all small glaciers) in central Spitsbergen and in Axel Heiberg Island. Wind effects (drifting snow to leeward slopes) are much less important, except in northwest Europe from Norway to Novaya Zemlya which is under the strong influence of westerly winds, greatest in the Polar and Sub−polar Urals. A thorough analysis is provided of aspect data for local glaciers within and near the Arctic Circle, and of variation in glacier mid−altitude with aspect and position. There is consistency between mean glacier aspect (in terms of numbers) and aspect with lowest glaciers, everywhere except in Wrangel Island.
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Exposure of green algae Chlorella vulgaris to short-term UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) induced several changes in the function of photosystem II (PS II) studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence (FL) and oxygen evolving. The intensity of photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity of algae suspension decreased in a similar way to the FL parameter values in proportion to the applied dose of UV-B radiation (0.0, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 kJ·m-2). The correlation between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FO ratio was better than that between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FM. The vitality index (Rfd) in the UV-B irradiated algae strongly decreased, compared to the control, which indicates inhibition of potential CO2 fixation and cooperation between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. It may indicate damage of Rubisco.
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Determining the size of source effect of a radiation thermometer is not an easy task and manufacturers of these thermometers usually do not indicate the deviation to the measured temperature due to this effect. It is one of the main uncertainty components when measuring with a radiation thermometer and it may lead to erroneous estimation of the actual temperature of the measured target. We present an empiric model to estimate the magnitude of deviation of the measured temperature with a long-wavelength infrared radiation thermometer due to the size of source effect. The deviation is calculated as a function of the field of view of the thermometer and the diameter of the radiating source. For thermometers whose field of view size at 90% power is approximately equal to the diameter of the radiating source, it was found that this effect may lead to deviations of the measured temperature of up to 6% at 200ºC and up to 14% at 500ºC. Calculations of the temperature deviation with the proposed model are performed as a function of temperature and as a function of the first order component of electrical signal.
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Acoustic radiation sources are successfully applied to cleaning rooms from dust of fairly large particle sizes (ten micrometers and larger). The sedimentation of fine aerosols (particle diameter of 1-10 microns) is a more complicated challenge. The paper is devoted to the substantiation of the acoustic sedimentation method for such aerosols. On the basis of the mathematical model analysis for aerosol sedimentation by the acoustic field the mechanisms of this process have been determined and include the particle coagulation acceleration and radiation pressure effect. The experimental results of the acoustic sedimentation of a model aerosol (NaCl) are shown. The calculation results according to the mathematical model for coagulation and sedimentation, on the basis of the Smolukhovsky’s equation taking into account various mechanisms of aerosol sedimentation by sound depending on the particle sizes and sound intensity, are given. The necessity to use intensive sources of high-frequency sound has been confirmed, suggesting that these sources must be located above dust clouds.
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Outdoor remote temperature measurements in the infrared range can be very inaccurate because of the influence of solar radiation reflected from a measured object. In case of strong directional reflection towards a measuring device, the error rate can easily reach hundreds per cent as the reflected signal adds to the thermal emission of an object. As a result, the measured temperature is much higher than the real one. Error rate depends mainly on the emissivity of an object and intensity of solar radiation. The position of the measuring device with reference to an object and the Sun is also important. The method of compensation of such undesirable influence of solar radiation will be presented. It is based on simultaneous measurements in two different spectral bands, shor-twavelength and long-wavelength ones. The temperature of an object is derived from long-wavelength data only, whereas the short-wavelength band, the corrective one, is used to estimate the solar radiation level. Both bands were selected to achieve proportional changes of the output signal due to solar radiation. Knowing the relation between emissivity and solar radiation levels in both spectral bands, it is possible to reduce the measurement error several times.
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