In this article the authors investigated and presented the experiments on the sentence boundaries annotation from Polish speech using acoustic cues as a source of information. The main result of the investigation is an algorithm for detection of the syntactic boundaries appearing in the places of punctuation marks. In the first stage, the algorithm detects pauses and divides a speech signal into segments. In the second stage, it verifies the configuration of acoustic features and puts hypotheses of the positions of punctuation marks. Classification is performed with parameters describing phone duration and energy, speaking rate, fundamental frequency contours and frequency bands. The best results were achieved for Naive Bayes classifier. The efficiency of the algorithm is 52% precision and 98% recall. Another significant outcome of the research is statistical models of acoustic cues correlated with punctuation in spoken Polish.
The subject of this review article is the monograph of the academician Zuzanna Topolińska Polski ~ macedoński: konfrontacja (nie tylko) gramatyczna. 10: Spirala ewolucji (Wrocław: Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, 2015), dedicated to the history and typology of Polish, Macedonian and other Slavic languages, refl ecting the many years of fruitful experience of Zuzanna Topolińska in research in this area, as well as in linguistic theory. The author of the review article emphasizes the novelty of this monograph, and the relevance of the issues considered in it, as well as the great importance of the book for Slavic and General linguistics.
The Old Believers appeared on the Polish territories in 18th century. They are a bilingual community. They use Russian dialect and Polish language, depending on communicative situation. Polish influence on the Old Believers’ dialect increased after two World Wars, when they became separated from their co-religionists in other countries and had more often contacts with Polish neighbours. In Old Believers’ Russian dialect more and more Polish elements are noticable, especially in lexis. In the technical terminology there are a lot of borrowings from Polish language caused above all by the civilization progress. The aim of this article is to analyze the lexis borrowed from Polish language in the field of technics in Russian dialect of the Old Believers of Suwałki-Augustów Region and furthermore confront it with the material gathered in “Słownik gwary staroobrzędowców mieszkających w Polsce” (1980 a.d.). The gathered material was analyzed paying special attention to assimilation to the Russian dialect.
The aim of the article is to analyze Russian words transcribed into the Polish alphabet extracted from the texts of a Polish conservative-liberal author, S. Michalkiewicz, from the years 2003−2015. The lists of both correctly and incorrectly transcribed units are presented and the mistranscribed words are examined. The categories of transcription errors are provided along with the examples of words in which they occur. The results of the analysis may serve as a point of reference in further studies concerning adherence to the transcription rules of Russian performed on a larger number of texts written by a greater variety of authors.
Polish Sign Language (PJM) is a natural communication system that has been evolving for two centuries. It is at the heart of the identity and culture of the Deaf community in Poland, but it is often marginalized and neglected. It first came under serious linguistic scrutiny not long ago, and more systematic research on it has been initiated in recent years by a team of researchers at the Section for Sign Linguistics at the University of Warsaw.
The author reviews the latest book by Leszek Bednarczuk devoted to the beginnings and the borderlands of the Polish language. The book under review deals with a wide array of topics related to the prehistory and history of Polish taken in its relation to Indo-European and the neighboring languages, the borderland varieties of Polish, and the linguistic vicissitudes of the Christianization of Poland.
This paper is devoted to the surname changes performed through administrative channels in the interwar period. The research is based on the announcements of the “Official Gazette of the Republic of Poland” in 1929. The author describes main reasons for the decisions of surname changes taking into account characteristics of avoided surnames and chosen demographic tendencies, especially those connected with the age and profession of applicants. People of Jewish origin, Poles and representatives of other nationalities showed different motives for surname changes. Jews most frequently changed their surnames due to legal reasons — they wanted to legalize the unlawful use of a surname of the so-called ritual father. The changes carried out under the motive of assimilation occurred definitely less often. Non-Jewish applicants changed mainly appellative names, especially those derived from words related to animals. After comparing tendencies occurring before and after World War II one concludes that besides legal and assimilation factors which are particular to the pre-war decades (connected with the ethnic, legal and religious situation of the time), the remaining reasons for the surname changes are universal and do not distinguish the pre-war period from that of the post-war.
The hydronym Szywra refers to the small river in the Warta basin flowing in the central part of Greater Poland. Although its name remained unclear for most of the researchers, it was believed to be of Pre-Slavic or Balto-Slavic origin. The paper reveals that these hypotheses were based on the wrong interpretation of the source material, and provides a new etymology for the name Szywra. Based on the critical analysis of all of the reachable records of names referring to the river Szywra, it has been proven that its Polish name is an adaptation of the former German name Schieferbach. Such a process was possible due to the long-term bilingual situation in the region of Greater Poland.
We talk about technology, lexicography, and long-forgotten word senses in Polish with Prof. Włodzimierz Gruszczyński from the PAS Institute of the Polish Language, where work is underway on the Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the 17th and 18th Centuries.
The component of the cause for the emotional state of the person experiencing the emotion is built into the structure of the class of verba sentiendi. Most emotive verbs can be classed as P(x, q) predicates, where q is the position of the propositional argument in which the content qualifying the causal component is expressed. The syntactic characteristics of sentences (conjunctions, prepositions) often do not communicate unequivocally the causal function. This paper demonstrates the existence in languages of contextual syntactic conditions which foster the use of explicit exponents of causality (e.g., Pol. ponieważ / bo // z powodu; Bulg. защото / понеже // поради / заради / по повод), appearing in alteration with the exponents of cohesion typical of the given verb. Also brought to attention is the use in sentence structures of other lexical means serving a similar function, like Pol. wynikający / płynący; Bulg. причинен / предизвикан. In conclusion it is stated that the research which takes into account the semantic structure of the predicate allows for analyzing phenomena that are usually not included in descriptions of case government of verbs.
German academic language contains far more phrasemes than it used to be assumed. Apart from specialist expressions, there are many collocations, idioms and pragmatic phrasemes, which perform a number of textual functions. Scientific discourse has received an increased interest lately, however, no study of body-part phrasemes in academic language has been conducted. This paper presents an analysis of occurrence of phrasemes with the component “eye” in a specially created corpus of German academic texts in such branches as: linguistics, literary studies, foreign language teaching, and medicine. The paper approaches the following questions: Are such phrasemes used in scientifi c discourse and, if so, in which branches of science? What are the purposes of their use? Which phrasemes are favoured in all the analysed branches?
The article is devoted to the problem of language interaction in Polish and East Slavic languages phraseology. Polish had a signifi cant impact on the formation of the phraseology of the East Slavic languages of the late XVI – early XIX century, which led to the emergence of similar Polish-Ukrainian-Belarusian-Russian phraseological units. It is often very difficult to determine the donor language. In some cases, the idiom (or proverb) could migrate from one language to another, enriching itself with new elements (in terms of vocabulary or semantics) and returning to the donor language in a new capacity. In the search for the source of phraseology in the article the authors propose to consider the date of the earliest fixation of the unit, the extended context of its use, which may contain linguistic or ethnographic details that help to identify the donor language. The article investigates the origin of one of the most obscure and recalcitrant items in Slavic phraseology: Polish zbić z pantałyku, Belorussian збіць з панталыку, Ukrainian збити з пантелику and Russian сбить с панталыку. In all four languages the meaning is ‘to confuse, befuddle, baffle’. This phraseological expression is shown to be first attested in Ukrainian at the end of the 18th cent.; from Ukrainian it was borrowed into Russian and then migrated into Polish. It is proposed that the expression originated in Ukrainian vernacular on the basis of Polish loanword pontalik ‘ornament, jewel’ adopted in Ukrainian as пантелик.
The aim of this study was to create a single-language counterpart of the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS) and to compare both with respect to their acoustical characteristics. The development procedure of the Polish Speech Test Signal (PSTS) was analogous to the one of ISTS. The main difference was that instead of multi-lingual recordings, speech recordings of five Polish speakers were used. The recordings were cut into 100–600 ms long segments and composed into one-minute long signal, obeying a set of composition rules, imposed mainly to preserve a natural, speech-like features of the signal. Analyses revealed some differences between ISTS and PSTS. The latter has about twice as high volume of voiceless fragments of speech. PSTS’s sound pressure levels in 1/3-octave bands resemble the shape of the Polish long-term average female speech spectrum, having distinctive maxima at 3–4 and 8–10 kHz which ISTS lacks. As PSTS is representative of Polish language and contains inputs from multiple speakers, it can potentially find an application as a standardized signal used during the procedure of fitting hearing aids for patients that use Polish as their main language.
The Polish language in Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine has been researched from many points of view, but it needs further studying. New material is required: records, letters, diaries, treatises, especially for researching standard Polish of the 20th century in its regional variant spoken by magnats, middle nobility, petty nobility living in villages, and by inteligentsia of cities and small towns. Also there are needed new methodological approaches to studying essential features of Polish mentioned above, which will take into account the frequent (common) traits as well as relict ones. The examination of these features will create a good base for distinguishing separate areas of the Polish language in Lithuania and Belorussia. The characteristic of vocabulary requests confrontation of words among others in synonymic pairs: native and foreign ones in register and in text, preferably based on computer text corps. To ascertain code mixing (also to find the homogenous/mixed character of the texts) it is necessary to apply both a panchronic approach (which regards all foreign elements), and a synchronic one (leaving out those foreign elements, which entered the grammatical or lexical systems of Polish). The paper proposes some ways for solving these problems
The article deals with the question of linguistic interference among Slavic languages at the example of Choroszczynka, a bilingual village in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship. The presentation of two complete questionnaires for the Slavic Linguistic Atlas (OLA), Polish and Ukrainian, not only makes it possible to capture grammatical and lexical peculiarities of both sets assigned to individual dialects, but also reveals carelessness of the fi eldworkers who collected the data. This, in turn, contributed to such an interpretation of dialectal data presented in OLA maps which does not refl ect linguistic reality.
This is a survey of Polish-language Jewish newspapers and periodicals published in Galicia prior to 1918 taking into account the general background of multilingual Jewish press in this autonomous province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It appears that the total amount of Jewish periodical publications in that period was 182, including 31 in Polish. This survey also attempts to establish the publication frequency and longevity of each periodical and identify the communities or sponsors that supported them.
The study analyzes the vocabulary of the Ruthenian “prosta mova” (“common language”) in a bilingual Ruthenian-Church Slavonic printed edition of 1607 (“Likarstvo na ospalyj umysl´´ čolovičyj” – “A Remedy for the Idle Human Mind”, translated by Demian Nalyvajko). We single out and discuss those lexical stems of the Ruthenian text that have no immediate equivalent in the early modern Polish language. Some of these stems belong to the Orthodox church terminology, others can be explained by the Church Slavonic original of the translation, still others demonstrate that Nalyvajko, like many other Ruthenian authors of that period, avoided certain Polish word stems despite the fact that his language is characterized by a plethora of marked Polonisms, and some of these avoided stems do occur in other Ruthenian texts of that period. Several markedly Ruthenian stems belong to the sphere of functional words.
Marta Hirschprung (born in Cracow in 1903, died 1942?) was a journalist, translator, editor of the children’s magazine Okienko na Świat (A Little Window on the World) and author of countless articles for the press. This article is an attempt at finding out the forgotten facts from her life and reconstructing her biography. While analyzing her contributions to the Gazeta Żydowska (The Jewish Newspaper) in 1940–1942, special attention is paid to her editorial work on its children’s supplements Nasza Gazetka/Gazetka dla Dzieci i Młodzieży (Our Little Paper/The Little Paper for Children and the Young People, 1940–1941).
This article examines Słowacki’s preoccupation with eroticism in some of his works and in his correspondence. The first part focuses on his poem ‘In Switzerland’ in which the relationship between the characters is shrouded in ambiguity and the sexual theme is treated in an elliptical manner. Beatrix Cenci, a Romantic drama showing the fi lthy, predatory aspects of sexuality and eroticism, is analysed in the second part of the article. It is followed by a discussion of Słowacki’s correspondence with Leonard Niedźwiecki, conducted in French. The article examines the ways in which the choice of the French language appears to have infl uenced the poet’s articulation of his intimate experiences and desires.