We examine how the Polish countryside is changing, in conversation with Prof. Monika Stanny and Prof. Andrzej Rosner from the PAS Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development, authors of the Report on Rural Development Monitoring.
Prof. Przemysław Śleszyński from the PAS Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization in Warsaw (author of an extensive study of 122 medium-sized Polish cities) explains why Poland’s midsize cities are facing depopulation.
This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
Poland’s National Vaccination Program is an essential element in the strategy of prevention of infectious diseases and their complications, here considered with a particular focus on combination vaccines and the need for the Program’s further expansion.
In this paper we present the first cases of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2 – GI.2) in Poland. The virus was detected in liver samples of RHD-suspected rabbits from Lodzkie and west Pomeranian voivodeships. In both cases, the typical clinical symptoms of the disease were observed despite the fact that the rabbits were previously vaccinated against RHD. In order to extend the analysis of the RHDV2 strain infecting the rabbits, the entire VP60 and NSP genes were amplified and sequenced. The results of rRT-PCR assay have shown that tested RHDV samples were positive for the presence of RHDV2. In the phylogenetic analysis of vp60gene the first Polish RHDV isolates (RED 2016 and VMS 2017) clustered together with the reference RHDV2, meaning they represent new evolutionary RHDV linkeages. The first Polish RHDV2 isolates showed about 97% nucleotide sequence identity with the reference RHDV2 strains and approximately 18% difference from classic RHDV and RHDVa variants.
Ore and non-ore mineralization in cracks filled with hydrocarbons in the dark grey Upper-Devonian limestone has been found in the Józefka quarry of Upper Devonian limestone and dolomite near the Górno village near Kielce at Holy Cross Mts. Poland. Hydrocarbons in the liquid form and iron and copper sulphides appears hear in the fault zone as joints filling. The wall rocks are impregnated by hydrocarbons giving them black color. Hydrocarbon impregnations appears also following the bedding planes The coexistence of ore mineralization and hydrocarbon suggests their common origin and migration from deep-seated sources, that may be the Silurian Ordovician or Lower to Middle Devonian black shales. The metallic-hydrocarbon compounds were suggested as metals carrier. Ore and non-ore mineralization in cracks filled with hydrocarbons in the dark grey Upper-Devonian limestone has been found in the Józefka quarry of Upper Devonian limestone and dolomite near the Górno village near Kielce at Holy Cross Mts. Poland. Hydrocarbons in the liquid form and iron and copper sulphides appears hear in the fault zone as joints filling. The wall rocks are spotty impregnated by hydrocarbons giving them black color. Hydrocarbon impregnations appears also following the bedding planes The coexistence of ore mineralization and hydrocarbon suggests their common origin and migration from deep-seated sources, that may be the Silurian Ordovician or Lower to Middle Devonian black shales. The metallic-hydrocarbon compounds were suggested as metals carrier.
The paper provides information on oceanobiological expeditions to the Antarctic organized by Polish Academy of Sciences. The scope of research of five expeditions is described and main achievements of Polish Antarctic studies are summarized.
In 16-18th century Poland there were few trials of blasphemy, including interferences into Church services or processions. the severe verdicts, capital punishment included, were rarely executed. The most frequently punished for an outrage against Catholic religious feelings were plebeians. No special attention was paid to the possible offences committed by noblemen and magnates. Thus, nothing happened to Erazm Otwinowski who in 1564 trampled on a monstrance torn out from a priest leading a procession. A Calvinist Marcin Kreza who also committed such an offence in 1580 went unpublished too. At the end of century Stefan Łowejko, who publicly manifested his atheism, was not even imprisoned. Although in 1785 a young magnate Henryk Niemirycz, who publicly profaned a host, was sentenced to death. He survived because he left the country. As it shows a coat of arms usually was a good protection against the administration of justice, even in denominational matters.
Professor Krystyna Chojnicka from the Department of History of Political and Legal Doctrines, Jagiellonian University, talks about respect for female lawyers, the true role of a Byzantine princess, and how a theatrical performance sparked her interest in Russian legal doctrine.
Prof. Mirosław Kofta, a psychologist from the University of Warsaw’s Faculty of Psychology and Institute for Social Studies, discusses political change in Poland, authoritarian personality, and civil society.
They are a vital source of information about the glaciations that covered significant areas of Poland in the Pleistocene. They intrigue not only scientists, but also geotourists. So why do glacial erratics so frequently end up vandalized?
Spatial and time diversity of housing construction in Poland. Residential housing construction, as one of the most important elements of spatial development, a factor decisive for living conditions of residents, is the object of interest not only of architects, planners or local and state authorities, but increasingly also of geographers, who mainly analyze these issues in a spatial context. The article analyzes the development of construction in post-war Poland in three periods: real socialism, the transformation period and the last decade. The subject of the analysis is the number of completed dwellings/flats in total, by location (city, village) and by investors (housing cooperatives, developers, private constructors and others).
Since the second half of the 20th century many cities in Poland lose population and the rate is more than likely to increase in future. The determinants that have the greatest impact on the process of shrinking cities are those related to economic transformation and restructuring of the so called traditional industry and consequences of the second demographic transition. In general, it can be distinguished a few main drivers for shrinkage of cities: transformation, suburbanization, demographic change (e.g. falling birth rates, outmigration in rural depopulation areas), environmental pollution. Shrinkage is a varied phenomenon because of its multidimensional, multiscalar and multitemporal character. But the multifacted character of these processes renders their recognition and estimation difficult. The purpose of the article is to identify the sorts of shrinking cities and to presents method of measuring this process. This paper presents the differentiation of shrinking cities process in Poland on the basic of selected empirical indicators. A detailed analysis was conducted in cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants in the period of 2000–2017.
Poland has been active in Antarctica for 41 years and modernizes its infrastructure and research program in accordance with the recommendations of the Antarctic Treaty, SCAR, and international recommendations.
In the article the question about the issue of beauty and energy in Polish architecture is considered in the context of experience in the design of buildings and housing estates collected in the last twenty years by the Warsaw studio Grupa 5 Architekci. The conceptual, urban and architectural assumptions are illustrated by three examples representative of different, key problem issues.
Drought: the very word instills dread, conjuring up images of dried-up wells, barren earth, and – perhaps worse still – empty taps and long lines to access wells. Is Poland likely to experience significant water shortages?
Is it possible to revitalize Europe without external interference and a shift in the geopolitical situation outside the Continent? An answer to this question is here offered by Prof. Jan Zielonka, a political scientist analyzing change in Central and Eastern Europe and a lecturer at the European Studies Centre, St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford.
Extraction of natural resources such as shale gas can disrupt the internal structure of rock, leading to the release of vast amounts of energy in the form of earthquakes. Is the risk of such human-induced quakes high in Poland? Scientists from the PAS Institute of Geophysics are trying to find the answer.
“We can see that all the recent predictions of a better future for the world are largely misguided. It is no longer certain even that the Cold War is definitively a thing of the past,” says Jerzy Szacki, a historian of ideas and sociologist, a professor emeritus of the University of Warsaw, and an ordinary member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Parliamentary elections has always been arousing extreme emotions in Poland. The 2005 and 2007 elections were widely addressed in the Polish media. Furthermore, the election campaign and the final election results attracted the attention of the British press, which was reflected in a number of articles published in the United Kingdom in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The main reason behind interest that the British press had in the political situation in Poland had to do with large population of Polish emigrants residing in the UK. The article is aimed at presenting the standpoint of one of widely-read English dailies which shapes not only the British foreign policy, but also the British public opinion, namely “The Guardian”. Through presenting the profiles of two main political parties running for the 2005 and the 2007 elections in Poland (i.e. Civic Platform as well as Law and Justice), “The Guardian” did its best to affect the results of the vote. The articles published in the daily not only described the political parties, but were also aimed at creating the image of Poland in Great Britain. Depending on the election results, the image of Poland and Poles was subject to change. “The Guardian”, British daily dealing with political matters, devoted much of its attention to parliamentary election held in Poland in Autumn 2005 and 2007. Before taking a good look at articles published in the newspaper, it is worth presenting the profile of the daily and political preferences expressed by its journalists. Originally “The Manchester Guardian”, “The Guardian” was first published in Manchester in 1821, and since 1961 has been coming out also in London. At the very beginning a weekly, now it is published Monday through Saturday and owned by world-famous Guardian Media Group plc., “The Guardian” boasts of being the first British daily produced entirely in colour. Having in mind the place and moment in history when it was first published, “The Guardian” is said to have liberal-democratic character, in other words to be in favour of the political programme outlined by British Labour Party. As for parliamentary election, since 1945 “The Guardian” has been a committed supporter of Labour Party or Liberal Democrats (an exception was election held in 1951 when the daily backed the candidature of Winston Churchill). Political sympathy expressed toward liberal parties is reflected in articles published by the daily. This was also the case with press coverage of two leading Polish political parties running for election both in 2005 and 2007, namely Law and Justice (PiS) and Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (PO).
Polish brines are highly mineralized and can potentially be used for recovery of selected useful elements such as magnesium and potassium. They also contain a number of other elements, including iodine, bromine, boron, and strontium. The results of the examination of the chemical composition of groundwater from the Mesozoic formations (bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium content) of northern and central Poland were analyzed. The basic statistical parameters of the content of these elements (Br, I, Mg) in brines of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous deposits and the content of lithium and strontium in waters of the entire Mesozoic formations were determined. In order to indicate aquifers that are the most suitable for the recovery of bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium, the relationship between concentrations and the depth of retention and dependencies between selected chemical components of these waters were analyzed. It has been found that the mineralization and concentrations of magnesium, bromine, and iodine increase with the age of aquifers, where these waters occur. Triassic waters are the most prospective for bromine and magnesium recovery among all analyzed aquifers. Furthermore, a relationship between the content of bromine, strontium, and magnesium has also been observed. The increase in the content of individual elements observed for lithium, strontium, and bromine with the increasing depth indicates a potential abundance of waters occurring at significant depths. The presented analysis is an approximation of the content of bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium; however, it may be the basis for further studies on the perspectives of using brines from the Mesozoic deposits of central and northern Poland as a source of chemical raw materials.
The Lower Devonian ‘Placoderm Sandstone’ in the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) is filled with abundant impressions of disarticulated vertebrate remains. The only acanthodian macroremains named to date are fin spines of Machaeracanthus polonicus Gürich. Fin spine impressions in slabs from the Winna Formation (Emsian) at Podłazie Hill (near Daleszyce) in the southern HCM, and also the Barcza Formation (?Lochkovian) at Barcza Quarry, Miedziana Góra Conglomerate (?Lochkovian), Gruchawka, and Zagórze Formation (middle–upper Emsian) at Bukowa Mountain in the northern HCM, reposited in the University of Warsaw, Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Warsaw, and Natural History Museum, London collections, have been cast and studied in order to better document this poorly known taxon. As noted in other Machaeracanthus species, we have found that M. polonicus has two different morphotypes of spines, which abut lengthwise to form a pair of spines. Our investigations show that the fin spine assemblage includes Onchus overathensis as well as M. polonicus, and probably another undetermined acanthodian. The affinities of O. overathensis are reassessed. It is here considered to be a diplacanthiform, and reassigned to the genus Striacanthus, as S. overathensis. Acanthodian scapulocoracoids have also been identified, as well as tightly spiralled toothwhorls which could be from an acanthodian.
Remains of decapod crustaceans of the family Alpheidae Rafinesque, 1815 and bony fish of the family Gobiidae Bonaparte, 1832 co-occur at a number of localities in the Korytnica Basin (Holy Cross Mountains) and in a newly exposed section along a stream near Niskowa (Outer Carpathians), both in southern Poland. These remains (alpheid major right-sided cheliped tips and gobiid otoliths) are interpreted as documenting a commensal partnership that existed in the shallowest zones of the middle Miocene Fore-Carpathian Basin in southern Poland under environmental conditions that must have been comparable to those of the present-day tropical/ subtropical Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean.