In the paper presented have been the results of the analysis of effectiveness of operation of binary power plant consisting of combined two Clausius-Rankine cycles, namely the binary cycle with water as a working fluid in the upper cycle and organic substance as a working fluid in the lower cycle, as well as a single fluid component power plant operating also in line with the C-R cycle for superheated steam, with water as a working fluid. The influence of the parameters of superheated steam in the upper cycle has been assessed as well as the type of working fluid in the lower cycle. The results of calculations have been referred to the single-cycle classical steam power plant operating at the same parameters of superheated steam and the same mass flow rate of water circulating in both cycles. On the basis of accomplished analysis it has been shown that the binary power plant shows a greater power with respect to the reference power plant.
The paper presents a literature review on the topic of vapour power plants working according to the two-phase thermodynamic cycle with supercritical parameters. The main attention was focused on a review of articles and papers on the vapour power plants working using organic circulation fluids powered with low- and medium-temperature heat sources. Power plants with water-steam cycle supplied with a high-temperature sources have also been shown, however, it has been done mainly to show fundamental differences in the efficiency of the power plant and applications of organic and water-steam cycles. Based on a review of available literature references a comparative analysis of the parameters generated by power plants was conducted, depending on the working fluid used, the type and parameters of the heat source, with particular attention to the needs of power plant internal load.
The present work is devoted to the problem of utilization of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases having the temperature of 350 °C. Conversion of the waste heat into electricity using a power plant working with organic fluid cycles is considered. Three Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant solutions are analysed and compared: a solution with the basic, single thermodynamic conversion cycle, one with internal heat recuperation and one with external heat recuperation. It results from the analysis that it is the proper choice of the working fluid evaporation temperature that fundamentally affects the maximum of the ORC plant output power. Application of the internal heat recuperation in the plant basic cycle results in the output power increase of approx. 5%. Addition of the external heat recuperation to the plant basic cycle, in the form of a secondary supercritical ORC power cycle can rise the output power by approx. 2%.
The objective of the paper is to analyse thermodynamical and operational parameters of the supercritical power plant with reference conditions as well as following the introduction of the hybrid system incorporating ORC. In ORC the upper heat source is a stream of hot water from the system of heat recovery having temperature of 90 °C, which is additionally aided by heat from the bleeds of the steam turbine. Thermodynamical analysis of the supercritical plant with and without incorporation of ORC was accomplished using computational flow mechanics numerical codes. Investigated were six working fluids such as propane, isobutane, pentane, ethanol, R236ea and R245fa. In the course of calculations determined were primarily the increase of the unit power and efficiency for the reference case and that with the ORC.
In the paper presented is an idea of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) operating with supercritical parameters and so called dry fluids. Discussed is one of the methods of improving the effectiveness of operation of supercritical cycle by application of internal regeneration of heat through the use of additional heat exchanger. The main objective of internal regenerator is to recover heat from the vapour leaving the turbine and its transfer to the liquid phase of working fluid after the circulation pump. In effect of application of the regenerative heat exchanger it is possible to obtain improved effectiveness of operation of the power plant, however, only in the case when the ORC plant is supplied from the so called sealed heat source. In the present paper presented is the discussion of heat sources and on the base of the case study of two heat sources, namely the rate of heat of thermal oil from the boiler and the rate of heat of hot air from the cooler of the clinkier from the cement production line having the same initial temperature of 260 oC, presented is the influence of the heat source on the justification of application of internal regeneration. In the paper presented are the calculations for the supercritical ORC power plant with R365mfc as a working fluid, accomplished has been exergy changes and exergy efficiency analysis with the view to select the most appropriate parameters of operation of the power plant for given parameters of the heat source.