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Number of results: 52
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Abstract

Abstract An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide on the structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgO in propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.%) and structural changes were determined by measurement of the FT-IR absorption spectra.
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Abstract

Al-enriched layer was formed on a magnesium substrate with use of casting. The magnesium melt was cast into a steel mould with an aluminium insert placed inside. Different conditions of the casting process were applied. The reaction between the molten magnesium and the aluminium piece during casting led to the formation of an Al-enriched surface layer on the magnesium substrate. The thickness of the layer was dependent on the casting conditions. In all fabricated layers the following phases were detected: a solid solution of Mg in Al, Al3Mg2, Mg17Al12 and a solid solution of Mg in Al. When the temperature of the melt and the mould was lower (variant 1 – 670o C and 310 o ; variant 2 – 680o C and 310o C, respectively) the unreacted thin layer of aluminium was observed in the outer zone. Applying higher temperatures of the melt (685o C) and the mould (325o C) resulted in deep penetration of aluminium into the magnesium substrate. Areas enriched in aluminium were locally observed. The Al-enriched layers composed mainly of Mg-Al intermetallic phases have hardness from 187-256 HV0.1.
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Abstract

In this work, the effect of the microstructure on corrosion behavior of selected Mg- and Al-based as cast alloys, was evaluated. The electrochemical examinations were carried out, and then a morphology of corrosion products formed due to local polarization on materials surface, was analyzed. It was documented that the presence of Mg2Si phase plays an important role in the corrosion course of Mg-based alloy. A selective etching was observed in sites of Mg2Si precipitates having “Chinese script”- like morphology. Analogous situation was found for Al-based alloy, where the key role was played by cathodic θ-CuAl2 phase.
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Abstract

The results of activity studies of four catalysts in methanol synthesis have been presented. A standard industrial catalyst TMC-3/1 was compared with two methanol catalysts promoted by the addition of magnesium and one promoted by zirconium. The kinetic analysis of the experimental results shows that the Cu/Zn/Al/Mg/1 catalyst was the least active. Although TMC-3/1 and Cu/Zn/Al/Mg/2 catalysts were characterised by a higher activity, the most active catalyst system was Cu/Zn/Al/Zr. The activity calculated for zirconium doped catalyst under operating conditions was approximately 30% higher that of TMC-3/1catalyst. The experimental data were used to identify the rate equations of two types - one purely empirical power rate equation and the other one - the Vanden Bussche & Froment kinetic model of methanol synthesis. The Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst modified with zirconium has the highest application potential in methanol synthesis.
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Abstract

The scope of this work is to investigate the precipitation of two Al-Mg-Si alloys with and without Cu and excess Si by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), Vickers hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the DSC curves found that the excess Si accelerate the precipitation and the alloy contain the excess Si and small addition of copper has higher aging-hardness than that of free alloy (without excess Si and Cu) at the same heat treatment condition. The sufficient holding time for the precipitation of the β'' phase was estimated to be 6 hours for the alloy aged at 100°C and 10 hours for the alloy aged at 180°C. The low Copper containing Al-Mg-Si alloy gives rise to the forming a finer distribution of β (Mg2Si) precipitates which increases the hardness of the alloy. In order to know more about the precipitation reactions, concern the peaks on the DSC curve transmission electron microscopy observation were made on samples annealed at temperatures (250°C, 290°C and 400°C) just above the corresponding peaks of the three phases β'', β' and β respectively.
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Abstract

To the main advantages of magnesium alloys belongs their low density, and just because of such property the alloys are used in aviation and rocket structures, and in all other applications, where mass of products have significant importance for conditions of their operation. To additional advantages of the magnesium alloys belongs good corrosion resistance, par with or even surpassing aluminum alloys. Magnesium is the lightest of all the engineering metals, having a density of 1.74 g/cm3 . It is 35% lighter than aluminum (2.7 g/cm3 ) and over four times lighter than steel (7.86 g/cm3 ). The Mg-Li alloys belong to a light-weight metallic structural materials having mass density of 1.35-1.65 g/cm3 , what means they are two times lighter than aluminum alloys. Such value of mass density means that density of these alloys is comparable with density of plastics used as structural materials, and therefore Mg–Li alloys belong to the lightest of all metal alloys. In the present paper are discussed melting and crystallization processes of ultra-light weight MgLi12,5 alloys recorded with use of ATND methods. Investigated magnesium alloy was produced in Krakow Foundry Research Institute on experimental stand to melting and casting of ultra-light weight alloys. Obtained test results in form of recorded curves from ATND methods have enabled determination of characteristic temperatures of phase transitions of the investigated alloy.
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Abstract

Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Raman microscopy in the composites microstructure.
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Abstract

Experimental Mg-Al-RE type magnesium alloys for high-pressure die-casting are presented. Alloys based on the commercial AM50 magnesium alloy with 1, 3 and 5 mass % of rare earth elements were fabricated in a foundry and cast in cold chamber die-casting machines. The obtained experimental casts have good quality surfaces and microstructure consisting of an α(Mg)-phase, Al11RE3, Al10RE2Mn7 intermetallic compound and small amount of α+γ eutectic and Al2RE phases.
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Abstract

As-cast Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y and Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y (wt%) alloys were prepared and extruded at 260 oC with an extrusion ratio of 25. The microstructure and mechanical behavior of as-cast and extruded alloys are reported and discussed. The results show that Mg-6Li-1.2Zn- 1.2Y alloy is composed of α-Mg, β-Li, and W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phases while Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy contains α-Mg, β-Li, W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phase and X-Mg12ZnY. After hot extrusion, the microstructure of specimens is refined and the average grains size of extruded alloys is 15 μm. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the extrusion, leading to grain refinement of test alloys. Both the strength and elongation of test alloys are improved by extrusion. The extruded Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy possesses an ultimate strength of 225 MPa with an elongation of 18% while the strength and elongation of Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y alloy are 206 MPa and 28%, respectively. The X-phase in Mg-6Li-0.3Zn- 0.6Y is beneficial to the improvement of strength, but will lead to the decrease of ductility.
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Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Sn addition on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-1Zn-1Zr-xSn (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 wt.%) alloys prepared by powder-in-tube rolling (PTR) method. The PTR-treated Mg alloys reached 98.3% of theoretical density. The hardness of the alloy increased with Sn addition. Two main intermetallic phases, Mg2Sn and Zn2Zr3, were formed in the alloys. The Mg2Sn intermetallic particles were observed along the grain boundaries, while the Zn2Zr3 particles were distributed in the Mg matrix. The addition of 1 wt. % Sn caused the corrosion potential to shift toward a more positive value, and the resulting alloy exhibited low corrosion current density.
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Abstract

Aluminium based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC’s) are much popular in the field like automobile and aerospace industries, because of its ease of fabrication process and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, Al-Zn-Mg alloy composite reinforced with 3, 6 and 9 v % of zircon sand was synthesised by stir casting technique. The microstructure of the composites revealed uniform distribution of reinforced particles. Hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of Al-Zn-Mg alloy/zircon sand composite were found to increase with increase in v % percentage of zircon sand. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis of wear tested sample surface of composites revealed no evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. Particle pulls out and abrasive wear was the common feature observed from all the composites.
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Abstract

The grain boundary wetting phase transition in an industrial EZ33A cast alloy is studied. 12% of the grain boundaries are completely wetted at the temperature slightly higher than the eutectic transformation temperature (530°C). The fraction of wetted grain boundaries increases with temperature, reaches a maximum of 85% at 570°C, and does not change further until the alloy melts. In the as-cast state, the alloy has low ductile properties at the ambient temperature. The microstructure in the as-cast state corresponds to the wetting state at about 560°C, which indicates that the cooling rate in casting is almost equal to that in quenching. The volume and the surface fraction of the second phase and the hardness measured at the least wetted state of samples point to its good machinability. The wetting data are used to suggest a sequence of heat treatment and machining for processing EZ33A alloy parts.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of the experimental tests of Mg/Al bimetallic bars rolling process in classic and multi-radial modified round-oval-round passes. The bimetallic bar consist of magnesium core, grade AZ31 and aluminium outer layer, grade 1050A. The stocks were round bars with diameter 22.5 mm with an aluminium layer share of 28%. As a result of rolling in four passes, bars of a diameter of about 17 mm were obtained. A bimetallic feedstock was manufactured using an explosive welding method. The use of the designed arrangement of multi-radial modified stretching passes resulted in obtaining Mg/Al bimetallic bars with an uniform distribution of the cladding layer over the bar perimeter and high quality of shear strength between individual layers compared to Mg/Al bars obtained in the classic passes.
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Abstract

The AlMg10 aluminum alloy reinforced with SiC particles was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP). The composite was made by mechanical mixing and gravity casting. The mass fraction of SiC particles in the composite was about 10%. Evaluation of the effects of FSP treatment was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and hardness measurement. It was found that the inhomogeneous distribution of SiC particles and their agglomeration, which were observable in the cast composite, were completely eliminated after FSP modification. The treatment was also accompanied by homogenisation of the material in the mixing zone as well as fragmentation of both the matrix grain of the composite and SiC particles. In the case of SiC particles, a change in their shape was also observed. In the as-cast composite, particles with dimensions from 30 to 60 µm and a sharp-edged polyhedral shape prevailed, while in the material subjected to friction treatment, particles with dimensions from 20 to 40 µm and a more equiangular shape prevailed. Pores and other material discontinuities occurring frequently in the as-cast composite were completely eliminated after friction modification. The recorded changes in the microstructure of the material were accompanied by an increase in the hardness of the composite by nearly 35%. The conducted investigations have shown that FSP modification of the AlMg10/SiC composite made by the casting method leads to favorable microstructural changes in the surface layer and may be an alternative solution to other methods and technologies used in surface engineering.
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Abstract

In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S) of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO) as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.
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Abstract

The study was conducted in the area of the impact of sulfur mine in Jeziórko. The aim of the study was to assess changes in pH, cation exchange capacity and content of available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium after 6 years of conducting remediation. In the experiment (plots with an area of 15 m2) degraded soil was rehabilitating by post-floating lime and compost from sewage sludge, sewage sludge and ash from combined heat and power (CHP). Composts at a dose of dry matter 180 t · ha-1 (6%), were determined in accordance with Minister of the Environment Regulation from 2001, applied the following options: control (only native soil limed), compost from municipal sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost (80%) and ash (20%), compost from sewage sludge (70%) and ash (30%). The reclaimed plots were sown with mixture of rehabilitation grass. Single de-acidification, land fertilization and a further 6-year extensive (without fertilization) use had a different influence on the properties of the native soilless substratum. Irrespective of the reclamation manner, after six years land use in the upper layers, observed increase in the average content of available phosphorus, available potassium content does not changed significantly but recorded a tenfold decrease in the content of available magnesium.
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Abstract

The effects of Mg and Ca on sulfide modification of sulphur steel were studied to elucidate the difference between micromagnesium treatment and micro-calcium treatment for the inclusion of sulphur steel. The results show that the inclusions in the steel appeared with an oxide core of Al2O3 and MnS wrapped. After the addition of Mg, the core was changed to spinel, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Mg-S. After Ca was added, the core was changed to Ca-Al-O, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Ca-S. The Mg content was higher than Ca content in the sulfides of the steel. Therefore, Mg was more effective than Ca in terms of sulfide modification with the same content of Mg and Ca in steel, but the yielding rate of Mg was lower than that of Ca. The Mg content in the oxide core was higher than Mg of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Mg or Mg-Ca. In contrast, the Ca content in the oxide core was lower than Ca of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Ca or Mg-Ca. MnS formed and precipitated during the melt solidification process. The complex sulfide (Mg-Mn-S) was precipitated around MgO·Al2O3 in the Mg treated steel during the cooling process. CaS inclusion was precipitated on the CaO·Al2O3 inclusions in the liquid Ca-treated steel. Thus, CaS was formed first, whereas MnS was formed during the cooling process, followed by the formation of complex sulfide (CaS+MnS), which finally precipitated around CaO·Al2O3 in the Ca-treated steel.
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Abstract

Two MgLiAl alloys of composition 4.5% Li and 1.5% Al (in wt.%) composed of α phase and of 9% Li, 1.5% Al composed of α (hcp) + β (bcc) phases were subjected to twist channel angular pressing (TCAP) deformation. Such deformation of α + β alloys caused less effective grain refinement than that of single α phase alloy. However, with increasing number of passes, grain size of single α phase alloy increased and that of β phase in two phase α + β alloy also grew, which suggested the effect of dynamic recrystallization. TEM studies allowed identifying particles of Li2MgAl phase of size of few μm. {001}<100> texture was observed in extruded alloy. Texture studies of extruded and TCAPed single phase hcp alloy indicated texture with {101 – 0} plane perpendicular to the extrusion direction and {0002} plane parallel to the extrusion direction. Duplex α + β alloys showed poor texture development.
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Abstract

This work is dealing with the impact of molybdenum on the structure properties of commercial cast AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy. The solidification path of AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy with various content of molybdenum has been investigated using cooling curve techniques. The samples for testing have been poured into permanent steel mold. The content of molybdenum has been varied from 0 to 0.20 wt. %.The desired chemical composition was achieved by adding of master alloy AlMo10 into commercial AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy. The micro hardness of as cast alloys with different content of molybdenum has been measured. The microstructure and EDX analysis from the casted samples has been carried out. The results show that molybdenum in commercial AlSi10Cu(Mg) alloy precipitate in the interdendritic region isolated in the form of Al(FeMnMoMg)Si rich intermetallic. The increased content of molybdenum increase slightly liquidus temperature, prolonging precipitation of the last eutectic and surprisingly decrease the micro hardness of commercial alloy for approximately 16 %.
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Abstract

This article deals with the fatigue properties of newly used AlZn10Si8Mg aluminium alloy where the main aim was to determine the fatigue strength and compare it with the fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg0.3 secondary aluminium alloys which is used in the automotive industry for cyclically loaded components. AlZn10Si8Mg aluminium alloy, also called UNIFONT 90, is self-hardening (without heat treatments), which contributes to economic efficiency. This is one of the main reasons why is compared, and may be an alternative replacement for AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy which is heat treated to achieve required mechanical properties. The experiment results show that the fatigue properties of AlZn10Si8Mg alloy are comparable, if not better, than AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy. Fatigue properties of AlZn10Si8Mg alloy are achieved after seven days of natural ageing, immediately after casting and achieving value of fatigue strength is caused by structural components formed during solidification of the melt.
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Abstract

The article presents the results of research concerning AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process under variable conditions of casting speed and cooling liquid flow through the crystallizer. The mechanical properties and structure of the obtained ingots were correlated with the process parameters. On the basis of the obtained results, it has been shown that depending on the cooling rate and the intensity of convection during solidification, significant differences in the mechanical properties and structure and of the ingots can occur. The research has shown that, as the casting speed and the flow rate of the cooling liquid increase, the hardness of the test samples decreases, while their elongation increases, which is related to the increase of the average grain size. Also, the morphology of the intermetallic phases precipitations lattice, as well as the centerline porosity and dendrite expansion, significantly affect the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of the tested ingots.
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Abstract

Iron is presented as an impurity in Al-Si alloys and occurs in the form of the β-Al5FeSi phase formations. The presence of iron and other elements in the alloy causes the formation of large intermetallic phases. Due to the high brittleness of this phase, it reduces the mechanical properties and increases the porosity. Manganese is used to inhibit the formation of this detrimental phase. It changes the morphology of the phase to polyhedral crystals, skeletal formations, or Chinese script. The present article deals with the influence of various amounts of manganese (0.1; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 wt. %) on the formation of iron-based intermetallic phases in the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with different levels of iron content (0.4; 0.8, 1.2 wt. %). The increase of iron content in each alloy caused the creation of more intermetallic compounds and this effect has been more significant with higher concentrations of manganese. In alloys where the amount of 1.2 wt. % iron is present, the shape of eutectic silicon grain changes from angular to short needle type.
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Abstract

Manganese is an effective element used for the modification of needle intermetallic phases in Al-Si alloy. These particles seriously degrade mechanical characteristics of the alloy and promote the formation of porosity. By adding manganese the particles are being excluded in more compact shape of “Chinese script” or skeletal form, which are less initiative to cracks as Al5FeSi phase. In the present article, AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foundry alloy with several manganese content were studied. The alloy was controlled pollution for achieve higher iron content (about 0.7 wt. % Fe). The manganese were added in amount of 0.2 wt. %, 0.6 wt. %, 1.0 wt. % and 1.4 wt. %. The influence of the alloying element on the process of crystallization of intermetallic phases were compared to microstructural observations. The results indicate that increasing manganese content (> 0.2 wt. % Mn) lead to increase the temperature of solidification iron rich phase (TAl5FeSi) and reduction this particles. The temperature of nucleation Al-Si eutectic increase with higher manganese content also. At adding 1.4 wt. % Mn grain refinement and skeleton particles were observed.
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