Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) are proteolytic enzymes involved with extracellular matrix degradation. They play a role in tumor invasion and metastases. Be- cause of their ability to degrade signaling molecules presented in extracellular matrix, MMPs contribute to tumor proliferation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of MMP2 (latent and both active and latent forms) and MMP9 (active, latent, active and latent forms) in different subtypes of canine lymphomas and their relationship with proliferative (mi- totic index and percentage of Ki67-positive cells) and apoptotic (apoptotic index) markers. Ex- pression of MMPs was assessed immunohistochemically using an immunoreactive score system. Expression of both MMPs was found in all 20 examined lymphomas belonging to six subtypes. Most cases showed a moderate level of all analyzed forms of MMP2 and MMP9. High expres- sion of MMPs was found in single cases. Except for a positive correlation between the active form of MMP9 and the mitotic index for all lymphoma cases, no other correlations between any remaining forms of MMPs and neither proliferative nor apoptotic markers were found, irrespec- tive of whether the analysis encompassed all cases or the most numerous lymphoma subtypes i.e. centroblastic and Burkitt-like. Our results were not able to clearly confirm the influence of MMPs on the proliferation and apoptotic activity of canine lymphoma cells. However, further studies examining MMPs activity by zymography, expression of their inhibitors and other factors in- volved in activation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition are needed to clarify the role of MMPs, especially the active form of MMP9, in the behavior of canine lymphoma cells.
The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper. The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and after the heating to a temperature of 140 o C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox technology.
The petrographic composition of coal has a significant impact on its technological and sorption properties. That composition is most frequently determined by means of microscope quantitative analyses. Thus, aside from the purely scientific aspect, such measurements have an important practical application in the industrial usage of coal, as well as in issues related to the safety in underground mining facilities. The article discusses research aiming at analyzing the usefulness of selected parameters of a digital image description in the process of automatic identification of macerals of the inertinite group using neural networks. The description of the investigated images was based on statistical parameters determined on the basis of a histogram and co-occurrence matrix (Haralick parameters). Each of the studied macerals was described by means of a 20-element feature vector. An analysis of its principal components (PCA) was conducted, along with establishing the relationship between the number of the applied components and the effectiveness of the MLP network. Based on that, the optimum number of input variables for the investigated classification task was chosen, which resulted in reduction of the size of the network’s hidden layer. As part of the discussed research, the authors also analyzed the process of classification of macerals of the inertinite group using an algorithm based on a group of MLP networks, where each network possessed one output. As a result, average recognition effectiveness of 80.9% was obtained for a single MLP network, and of 93.6% for a group of neural networks. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to use the proposed methodology as a tool supporting microscopic analyses of coal.
The uncontrolled power flow in the AC power system caused by renewable energy sources (restless sources, distributed energy sources), dynamic loads, etc., is one of many causes of voltage perturbation, along with others, such as switching effects, faults, and adverse weather conditions. This paper presents a three-phase voltage and power flow controller, based on direct PWM AC/AC converters. The proposed solution is intended to protect sensitive loads against voltage fluctuation and problems with power flow control in an AC power system. In comparison to other solutions, such as DVR, UPFC, the presented solution is based on bipolar matrix choppers and operates without a DC energy storage unit or DC link. The proposed solution is able to compensate 50% voltage sags, in the case of three-phase symmetrical voltage perturbation, and single phase voltage interruptions. Additionally, by means of a voltage phase control with a range of #6;60◦ in each phase, it is possible to control the power flow in an AC power system. The paper presents an operational description, a theoretical analysis based on the averaged state space method and four terminal descriptions, and the experimental test results from a 1 kVA laboratory model operating under active load.
This paper is devoted to measuring the continuous diagnosis capability of a system. A key metric and its calculation models are proposed enabling us to measure the continuous diagnosis capability of a system directly without establishing and searching the sequential fault tree (SFT) of the system. At first a description of a D matrix is given and its metric is defined to determine the weakness of a continuous diagnosis. Then based on the definition of a sequential fault combination, a sequential fault tree (SFT) is defined with its establishment process summarized. A key SFT metric is established to measure the continuous diagnosis capability of a system. Two basic types of dependency graphical models (DGMs) and one combination type of DGM are selected for characteristics analysis and establishment of metric calculation models. Finally, both the SFT searching method and direct calculation method are applied to two designs of one type of an auxiliary navigation equipment, which shows the high efficiency of the direct calculation method.
The paper addresses the problem of constrained pole placement in discrete-time linear systems. The design conditions are outlined in terms of linear matrix inequalities for the Dstable ellipse region in the complex Z plain. In addition, it is demonstrated that the D-stable circle region formulation is the special case of by this way formulated and solved pole placement problem. The proposed principle is enhanced for discrete-lime linear systems with polytopic uncertainties.
This paper discusses the mechanical properties of a material fabricated from commercially available metal powder mixtures designed for use as a metal matrix of diamond impregnated composites. The mixtures with the catalogue numbers CSA and CSA800 provided by a Chinese producer are suitable for experimental laboratory testing. The specimens were fabricated in a graphite mould using hot pressing. The material was tested for density, porosity, hardness, and tensile strength under static loading. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructure and cleavage fracture of broken specimens. It was essential to determine how the chemical composition and the fabrication process affected the microstructure and properties of the material. The properties of the sinters were compared with those of hot pressed specimens fabricated from sub-micron size cobalt powder (Cobalt SMS). Although the as-consolidated material is inferior to cobalt, it displays a favourable combination of hardness, yield strength and ductility, and seems to have a great potential for moderate and general purpose applications.
In the paper the parametric optimization problem for a linear system with two delays and a PD-controller is presented. In the parametric optimization problem the quadratic performance index is considered. The value of the quadratic index of quality is calculated due to the Lyapunov functional and is equal to the value of that functional for the initial function of the neutral system with two delays. The Lyapunov functional is determined by means of the Lyapunov matrix.
Austenitization is the first step of heat treatment preceding the isothermal quenching of ductile iron in austempered ductile iron (ADI) manufacturing. Usually, the starting material for the ADI production is ductile iron with more convenient pearlitic matrix. In this paper we present the results of research concerning the austenitizing of ductile iron with ferritic matrix, where all carbon dissolved in austenite must come from graphite nodules. The scope of research includedcarrying out the process of austenitization at 900o Cusing a variable times ranging from 5 to 240minutes,and then observations of the microstructure of the samples after different austenitizing times. These were supplemented with micro-hardness testing. The research showed that the process of saturating austenite with carbon is limited by the rate of dissolution of carbon from nodular graphite precipitates.
The K4 graph and the inertia of the adjacency matrix for a connected planar graph. A substantial history exists about incorporating matrix analysis and graph theory into geography and the geospatial sciences. This study contributes to that literature, aiding in analyses of spatial relationships, especially in terms of spatial weights matrices. We focus on the n-by-n 0–1 binary adjacency matrix, whose rows and columns represent the nodes of a connected planar graph. The inertia of this matrix represents the number of positive (n+), negative (n−), and zero (n0) eigenvalues. Approximating the Jacobian term of spatial auto-normal models can benefit from calculating these matrix quantities. We establish restrictions for n- exploiting properties we uncover for the K4 graph.
Light weight, low density with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, aluminum is the most important material and is commonly used for high performance applications such as aerospace, military and especially automotive industries. The researchers who participate in these industries are working hard to further decrease the weight of end products according to legal boundaries of greenhouse gases. A lot of research was undertaken to produce thin sectioned aluminum parts with improved mechanical properties. Several alloying element addition were investigated. Yet, nowadays aluminum has not met these expectations. Thus, composite materials, particularly metal matrix composites, have taken aluminum’s place due to the enhancement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys by reinforcements. This paper deals with the overview of the reinforcements such as SiC, Al2O3 and graphene. Graphene has recently attracted many researcher due to its superior elastic modulus, high fatigue strength and low density. It is foreseen and predicted that graphene will replace and outperform carbon nanotubes (CNT) in near future.
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
Commercially pure titanium is less expensive, generally more corrosion resistant and lower in strength than its alloys, and is not heat-treatable. The use of Ti and its alloys as construction materials under severe friction and wear conditions is limited due to their poor tribological properties. Nevertheless, proper addition of hard ceramic particles into Ti and its alloys has proved to be an efficient way to enhance their mechanical and wear properties. Our purpose in this work was to analyze the corrosion, tribocorrosion, mechanical and morphological effects of combining titanium carbide with titanium metal, to create a unique composite via spark plasma sintering technique (SPS). Composites with different mass percentage (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of ceramic phase were produced. The samples of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were also tested, as a reference. These composites were examined for mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in an environment similar to the human body (Ringer’s solution). Open circuit potential (OPC) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The properties of titanium composites reinforced with micro- and nanocrystalline TiC powders were compared. It was stated that wear properties were significantly improved with increasing amount of TiC in matrix, especially in the case of nanocrystalline reinforcement. In terms of corrosion resistance, the composites showed slightly worse properties compared to pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.
The effect of additives on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of pure and additive (Zr, B and Mg)-added silica ceramics were investigated for their application to the matrix phase of a silica fiber reinforced silica (SiO2/SiO2f) composite. The additives affected the rate of densification and crystallization (or transformation) of the amorphous silica. Among the compositions, pure silica ceramics sintered at 900°C for 1 h showed the maximum flexural strength. Based on the results, SiO2/SiO2f was fabricated by a repeated vacuum-assisted infiltration method followed by the heat treatment at 900°C for 1 h. The relative density of the composite was 78.2% with a flexural strength of 22.4 MPa. Fractography revealed that the composite was damaged by strong bonding at the fiber/matrix interface and the fracture of fiber.
In this study, metal matrix composite materials containing melt-spun Al-20Si-5Fe alloys and boron carbide was produced by high energy ball milling and then hot pressing at 200 MPa pressure and 450°C. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations were performed by using an optical microscopy, X-Ray diffractometer, and dynamic microhardness tester. It was observed that boron carbide particles were homogenously distributed in the microstructure and values of microhardness and elastic modules were averagely 830 MPa and 42 GPa, respectively.
Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Raman microscopy in the composites microstructure.
The matrix converter is a new generation of power electronic converters and is an alternative to back-to-back converters in applications that dimensions and weight are important. In this paper, a simple control algorithm for a three-phase asynchronous motor based on a direct torque control technique, which is fed through a three-phase direct matrix converter, is presented. For direct matrix converters, 27 switching modes are possible, which using the predictive control technique and for the different modes of the matrix converter, the motor behavior is estimated at the next sampling interval. Then the objective function is determined and the optimal possible mode is selected. Finally, the best switching mode is applied to the direct matrix converter. In order to evaluate the proposed method, simulation of the system in Matlab/Simulink software environment is performed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
In this paper, we present a synthesis of the parameters of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the reconstruction of the distributed strain affecting the grating, performed by means of its reflection spectrum. For this purpose, we applied the transition matrix method and the Nelder-Mead nonlinear optimization method. Reconstruction results of the strain profile carried out on the basis of a simulated reflection spectrum as well as measured reflection spectrum of the FBG indicate good agreement with the original strain profile; the profile reconstruction errors are within the single digit percentage range. We can conclude that the Nelder-Mead optimization method combined with the transition matrix method can be used for distributed sensing problems.
NiTi alloys are successfully used in engineering and medical applications because of their properties, such as shape memory effect, superelasticity or mechanical strength. A composite with Mg matrix, due to its vibration damping properties, can be characterized by low weight and good vibration damping properties. In this study, a combination of two techniques was used for successful fabrication of Mg composite reinforced by NiTi alloy preform. The porous preforms synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) from elemental powders were subsequently infiltrated with Mg by squeeze casting. The effects were examined with scanning electron microscope with EDS detector, X-ray diffraction and microindentation. The inspection has shown well-connected matrix and reinforcement; no reaction at the interface and open porosities fully infiltrated by liquid Mg. Moreover, analysis of samples’ fracture has exhibited that crack propagates inside the Mg matrix and there is no detachment of reinforcement.
The sound absorption property of polyurethane (PU) foams loaded with natural tea-leaf fibers and luffa cylindrica (LC) has been studied. The results show a significant improvement in the sound absorption property parallel to an increase in the amount of tea-leaf fibers (TLF). Using luffa-cylindrica as a filler material improves sound absorption properties of soft foam at all frequency ranges. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of the sample resulted in an improvement of the sound absorption property. It is pleasing to see that adding tea-leaf fibers and luffa-cylindrica to the polyurethane foam demonstrate a significant contribution to sound absorption properties of the material and it encourages using environmental friendly products as sound absorption material in further studies.