The assessment of a rock’s behaviour around excavations and the effectiveness of its reinforcement in underground ore mines is dependent on the performance of the rock-bolt and rock-mass interaction, which can be estimated on the basis of appropriately designed measurements. Based on the background of various measurements solutions described in the literature, concerning rock bolt monitoring methods, the authors proposed a new, original device for mass measurements in mine conditions. After examining the advantages and disadvantages of existing constructions, the article presents the essence, principle of operation and method of measuring anchor load in an underground excavation with the a instrument, indicator WK-2/8. The prototype has been carefully researched and successfully tested in a full-scale laboratory environment. This instrument, also referred to as a load indicator or force pad, does not require electrical power and allows for relatively accurate (with a resolution of 10-14kN, up to about 90kN loading capacity) and a remote reading of the axle loading of the anchor (AGH patent) by any person present in the specified area. The device can be installed in mining excavations under loading conditions. The relatively low cost of a measuring instrument, practically used as an additional washer, as well as an easy assembly method, makes it universally applicable in mines where anchoring is used as a means of strengthening the rock.
The research paper presents the results of the dynamic analysis of an existing bar dome subjected to wind loads. The calculation model of the structure was constructed using the finite element method. The dome was subjected to the standard wind pressure, assuming that it is operates in a harmonic manner. The numerical analyses were performed with the application of Autodesk Robot and MES3D. The analysis focused on the impact of selected factors such as the frequency of forcing, wind gustiness coefficient and structural damping on the behaviour of structures.
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of elevated temperature on thin-walled purlins restrained by sheeting. In the first part of the study the bearing capacity of purlins cooperating with sheeting is examined in normal and elevated temperature based on European Standards. Next, special attention is paid to creating a numerical FEM model of the restrained purlins in Abaqus program taking into account different materials properties with respect to temperature increase.
Probabilistic analysis of a space truss is presented in the paper. Reliability of such a structure is sensitive to geometrical and material imperfections. The objective of this paper is to present a variant of the point estimate method (PEM) to determine mean values and standard deviations of limit loads of engineering structures. The main advantage presented by this method is the small number of sample calculations required to obtain estimators of investigated parameters. Thus the method is straightforward, requiring only preliminaries of probability theory. This approach is illustrated by limit state analysis of a space truss, considering geometric and material imperfections. The calculations were performed for different random models, so the influence of random parameters on the limit load of the truss can be determined. A realistic snow load was imposed.
In this paper, flysch is presented as a representative material of a wide section of the Carpathian Mountains, with some areas in Poland highlighted. The geological structure of this area is complex due to the alternating layers of blocky rock masses and soil (Vessia et al., 2017). Such a complex pattern is seen in some Alpine flysch slopes, such as the Ingelsberg landslide area (Romeo et al., 2015). Many authors are monitored, predicted landslides (Allasia et al., 2013; Bertacchini et al., 2009; Casagli et al., 2010) by sophisticated sensors. The rock-soil flysch successions have become intensively fissured as a result of their geological history, weathering (precipitation and snowmelt), and long-term water retention, especially on the surface layers. These complex materials are characterised by heterogeneous lithologies, whose mechanical properties are largely uncertain. These geological structures have also been confirmed by monitoring and control studies performed on a large number of landslides (Bednarczyk, 2014). One of the most striking phenomena is the sudden decrease in the strength parameters in the studied rocks in the direction parallel to the layers due to watering. The process is made possible by heterogeneous fractured strong rock layers with high permeability coefficients for water. This study precisely describes the phenomena occurring at the contact area between the component layers of flysch under the wet conditions of a weak plane. An elastic-plastic analysis method that considers the developed strength model at the surfaces of the contact areas (Biernatowski & Pula, 1988; Pula, 1997) has been used to estimate the load capacity for piles working under a horizontal load. The piles are part of a reliability chain (Pula, 1997) in a given construction and are the first element of concern for monitoring (Muszynski & Rybak, 2017). A particular device intended to study the dependence of the shear stress on a fixed failure surface in a controlled consolidation condition was utilized. The study was conducted for a wide range of displacements and for different values of stabilized vertical stresses of consolidation. The complexity of the processes occurring in the shear zone, presented as a detailed study of the material crack mechanics, is highlighted. The laboratory results were used to construct the mechanical model of the slip surface between the soil and rock with the description supported by a neural network (NN) approximation. The artificial NN was created as a multi-layered, easy to use approach for interpreting results and for quick reconstruction of approximated values useful for the calculations presented in laterally loaded piles. For the calculations, long, sheared strips of material were considered in a semi-analytical procedure to solve a differential equation of stability. The calculations are intended to reveal the safety indexes for a wide range of boundary tasks as the most significant indicator for design decisions.
Theoretical and experimental research indicates that radial loads have a significant influence on the value of belt-on-idler rolling resistances. Computational models discussed in literature use the notion of unit rolling resistance, i.e. rolling resistance per unit length of the idler. The total value of the rolling resistance of belt on a single idler is determined by integrating unit rolling resistance with respect to the length of the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This procedure requires the knowledge of normal load distribution along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. Loads acting on the idler set have been the object of both theoretical analyses and laboratory tests. Literature mentions several models which describe the distribution of normal loads along the contact zone between the belt and the idler set (Krause & Hettler, 1974; Lodewijks, 1996; Gładysiewicz, 2003; Jennings, 2014). Numerous experimental tests (Gładysiewicz & Kisielewski, 2017; Król, 2017; Król & Zombroń, 2012) demonstrated that the resultant normal loads acting on idlers are approximate to the loads calculated in theoretical models. If the resultant normal load is known, it is possible to assume the distribution of loads acting along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This paper analyzes various hypothetical load distributions calculated for both the center idler roll and for the side idler roll. It also presents the results of calculations of belt rolling resistances for the analyzed distributions. In addition, it presents the results of calculations with allowance for load distribution along the generating line of the idler.
The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.
Th This paper presents a simple method of evaluating the load resistance and stiffness of corrugatedsheets locally loaded with suspended technical fixtures. As a part of this research, parametricnumerical analyses of corrugated sheets of different span, and with differently located concentratedforces, were carried out. Stress distributions in the individual folds in the elastic range and inthe ultimate limit state were identified. On their basis, equivalent concentrated load factors forthe individual folds in the sheet were determined. The load factors enable analyses of the loadresistance and stiffness of corrugated sheets loaded with concentrated forces, which can be helpfulin design practice.
The objective of the submitted paper is to analyze the influence of the load on the calibration of micro-hardness and hardness testers. The results were validated by Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Z-score. The relationship between the load and micro-hardness in calibration of micro-hardness testers cannot be explained by Kick's Law (Meyer's index "n" is different from 2). The conditions of Kick's Law are satisfied at macro-hardness calibration, the values of "n" are close to 2, regardless of the applied load. The apparent micro-hardness increases with the increase of the load up to 30 g; the reverse indentation size effect (ISE) behavior is typical for this interval of the loads. The influence of the load on the measured micro-hardness is statistically significant for majority of calibrations.
The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic method of analyzing the combinations of snow and wind loads using meteorological data and to determine their combination factors. Calculations are based on data measured at twelve Polish meteorological stations operated by the Institute for Meteorology and Water Management. Data provided are from the years 1966 - 2010. Five combinations of snow load and 10-minute mean wind velocity pressure have been considered. Gumbel probability distribution has been used to fit the empirical distributions of the data. As a result, the interdependence between wind velocity pressure and snow load on the ground for a return period of 50 years has been provided, and the values of the combination factors for snow loads and wind actions are proposed.
The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.
Trace metal composition of snowpack, snow-melt filter residues and top-soils were determined along transects through industrial towns in the Usa River Basin: Inta, Usinsk and Vorkuta. Elevated concentrations of deposition elements and pH in snow and soils associated with alkaline coal ash within 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were found. Atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Vorkuta and Inta, added significantly to the soil contaminant loading as a result of ash fallout. The element concentrations in soils within 20-30 km of Vorkuta do not reflect current deposition rates, but instead, reflect an historical pollution legacy, when coal mining activity peaked in the 1960s. There is little evidence of anthropogenic metal deposition around the gas and oil town of Usinsk.
The paper presents a new method for measuring the strain and load of wire ropes guide using fiber optic sensors with Bragg gratings. Its principle consists in simultaneous fiber optic measurement of longitudinal strain of the rope and transverse strain of the bolt fixing the rope. The tensometric force transducers which have been used so far were only able to determine the load in the head securing the rope through an indirect measurement using a special strain insert. They required calibration, compensation of temperature changes, as well as periodic checking and calibration. The head fastening the rope required significant design changes. Measurement based on fiber optic sensors does not have these drawbacks and is characterized by a much higher accuracy and safety of measurements, because the working medium is light. The fastening head does not change. The measurement of the rope load may be based on the change of strain value or indirectly by means of measuring the deflection of the bolt fixing the rope holder. The proposed solution consists in placing the optical fiber with Bragg grating inside the bolt. It enables continuous measurements with a frequency of 2 kHz. A special test bench was built at the Research and Supervisory Centre of Underground Mining. Testing on guide ropes was carried out in a mining hoist in the Piast mine.
High distribution system power-losses are predominantly due to lack of investments in R&D for improving the efficiency of the system and improper planning during installation. Outcomes of this are un-designed extensions of the distributing power lines, the burden on the system components like transformers and overhead (OH) lines/conductors and deficient reactive power supply leading to drop in a system voltage. Distributed generation affects the line power flow and voltage levels on the system equipment. These impacts of distributed generation (DG) may be to improve system efficiency or reduce it depending on the operating environment/conditions of the distribution system and allocation of capacitors. For this purpose, allocating of distributed generation optimally for a given radial distribution system can be useful for the system outlining and improve efficiency. In this paper, a new method is used for optimally allocating the DG units in the radial distribution system to curtail distribution system losses and improve voltage profile. Also, the variation in active power load in the system is considered for effective utilization of DG units. To evidence the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out in MATLAB software on the IEEE-33 bus system and Vastare practical 116 bus system.
In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
With the increasing penetration rate of grid-connected renewable energy generation, the problem of grid voltage excursion becomes an important issue that needs to be solved urgently. As a new type of voltage regulation control method, electric spring (ES) can alleviate the fluctuations of renewable energy output effectively. In this paper, the background and basic principle of the electric spring are introduced firstly. Then, considering the influence of an electric spring on noncritical load voltage, noncritical loads are classified reasonably, and based on the electric spring phasor diagram, the control method to meet the noncritical load voltage constraint is proposed. This control method can meet the requirements of voltage excursions of different kinds of noncritical load, increase the connection capacity of the noncritical load and improve the voltage stabilization capacity of the electric spring. Finally, through the simulation case, the feasibility and validity of electric spring theory and the proposed control method are verified.
A new method measuring of mass in electronic system of scales has been described. The main element of this system is inductive measuring load cell, which was compared with strain gauge load cell. The aim of the paper is described advantages of the inductive measuring system of mass and explain some main problems of this system. Digital correction of the mechanical errors of the beam like: hysteresis, creep material of the beam under constant load, influence of ambient temperature was described.
On-load tap changers (OLTC) are some of the main transformer elements that make voltage adjustment in a power network possible. Their failures often cause shutdowns of distribution transformers. The paper presents research work aimed at the assessment of the technical condition of OLTCs by the acoustic emission method (EA). This method makes the OLTC diagnosis possible without the need of disconnecting the transformer from the system. The measurements were taken in laboratory conditions. The influence on the operation non-concurrence of the power tap changer contacts on the AE registered signals has been investigated. The signals registered were subjected to analyses in the time and time-frequency domains. The result analysis in the time domain was carried out using the Hilbert transform and calculating characteristic times for the particular runs. A short-time Fourier transform was used for the assessment of results in the time-frequency domain.
In the acoustic fatigue experiment for hypersonic vehicle in simulated harsh service environment on ground, acoustic loads on the surface of test pieces of the vehicle need to be measured. However, for the normal microphones without high temperature resistance ability, the near field sound measurement cannot be achieved. In this work, on the basis of previous researches, an acoustic tubes array is designed to achieve the near field measurement of acoustic loads on the surface of the test piece in the supersonic airflow with high temperature achieved by coherent jet oxygen lance. Firstly, the process of designing this acoustic tubes array is introduced. Secondly, the equality of phase differences at the front and at the end of the tubes is stated and proved using a phase differences test with an acoustic tubes array whose design is presented in this text; therefore, the phase differences of signals acquired by microphones can be directly applied to beamforming algorithm to determine the acoustic load source. Finally, using above mentioned acoustic tubes array, measurement of acoustic load, with and without a test piece in the supersonic airflow made by the coherent jet oxygen lance, is conducted respectively, and the measurements results are analyzed.
A steam generator in a nuclear power plant with a light water reactor is a heat exchanger, in which the heat is being transferred from the primary to the secondary loop (it links the primary and secondary loops). When the power plant is running, the inlet parameters (temperatures and mass flow rates) on both sides of the steam generator can change. It is important to know how the changes of these parameters affect the steam generator performance. The complexity of the processes taking place in the steam generator makes it difficult to create a simulator reflecting its performance under changed conditions. In order to simplify the task, the steam generator was considered as a ‘black box’ with the aim of examining how the changes of the inlet parameters affect the changes of the outlet ones. On the basis of the system (steam generator) response, a simple mathematical model of the steam generator under variable load conditions was proposed. In the proposed model, there are two dimensionless parameters and three constant coefficients. A linear relation between these dimensionless parameters was obtained. The correctness of the model was verified against the data obtained with a steam generator simulator for European Pressured Reactor and AP-600 reactors. A good agreement between the proposed model and the simulator data was achieved.
The first order variation of critical loads of thin-walled columns with bisymmetric open cross-sectiondue to some variations of the stiffness and location of bracing elements is derived. The con-siderations are based on the classical linear theory of thin-walled beams with non-deformablecross-section introduced by Vlasov . Both lateral braces and braces that restraint warping andtorsion of the cross-section have been taken into account. In the numerical examples dealing withI-column, the functions describing the influence of location of the braces with unit stiffness on thecritical load of torsional and flexural buckling are derived. The linear approximation of the exactrelation of the critical load due to the variation of the stiffness and location of braces is determined.
Presented in this paper are results of an experimental investigation on the rivet flexibility and load transmission in a riveted lap joint representative for the aircraft fuselage. The test specimens consisted of two aluminium alloy Alclad sheets joined with 3 rows of rivets. Two different squeeze forces were applied to install the rivets. Rivet flexibility measurements have been performed under constant amplitude fatigue loading using several methods including two original optical techniques developed by the present authors. The axial tractions in the sheets required to determine the rivet flexibility have been derived from strain gauge measurements. In order to eliminate the effect of secondary bending the strain gauges have been bonded at the same locations on the outside and faying surface of the sheet. The experiments enabled an evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques to determine the rivet flexibility. It was observed that, although the measured flexibility was identical for both end rivet rows, the load transfer through either of these rows was different. Previous experimental results by the present authors suggest that behind the non-symmetrical load transfer distribution through the joint are large differences between the rivet hole expansion in the sheet adjacent to the driven rivet head and the sheet under the manufactured head . It has been concluded that commonly used computation procedures according to which the load transfer is only related to the rivet flexibility may lead to erroneous results.