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Abstract

The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the self- healing properties of a commercially-available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) using flexible-wall permeameter. The GCLs are produced by the same factory, but the contents of bentonite are different. Also the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of GCLs with no defect are different. In this study, specimens were completely saturated under the backpressure of 20 kPa before the test. Permeability tests were performed on GCL specimens with penetrating flaw and also on specimens permeated with distilled water and CaCl2 solutions. The test results were presented and discussed. Experimental results showed that the GCL with penetrating flaw did not exhibit complete self-healing in the case of flaw. After 120 days, the hydraulic conductivity increased by approximately an order of magnitude. In addition, CaCl2 solutions had a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity. The research findings might be of interest to researchers and engineers who design liners for landfills and other liquid containment facilities
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Abstract

This paper presents simulation results of the consolidation process of the flotation waste landfill “Żelazny Most”. The mathematical model used in presented research is based on Biot’s model of consolidation and is extended with rheological skeleton. The load is the mass pressure of the landfill itself. The initial point selected for calculations was based on the ground water level calculated in a landfill. The creeping process in this waste landfill was analyzed along the north – south section. The solution is therefore 2D with the assumption of a plane strain state. Effective model parameters data were obtained in laboratory tests on the material from the waste landfill. Results obtained for a stress state in a storage state can help to determine whether the adopted linear model of visco-elastic medium does not lead to changes in the Coulomb – Mohr potential yield, showing the emergence of plasticity of material storage areas.
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Abstract

One of the major tasks of municipal waste management in European Union countries is the systematic reduction of waste that is removed and transported to landfills. This refers particularly to biodegradable waste. One of the methods employed to decrease waste amount is Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) of the waste, before it is stored. The article presents characteristics of MSW and biologically pre-treated municipal solid waste, organic carbon loads emitted in biogas and leachate during waste deposition in a landfill. Its decomposition rate constants were determined on the basis of modified Zacharof and Butler’s stochastic model. The values of decomposition rate constants determined for MSW had similar change trends to those presented in the literature: the hydrolysis constant had the lowest value (2.6 × 10-5 d-1), the highest acid phase constant (4.1 × 10-4 d-1), while the methane phase constant - 2.2 × 10-4 d-1. The PMSW decomposition rate constants in each anaerobic waste degradation phase had similar change trends, though their values were higher, by 21, 11 and 19%, respectively.
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