Ladle plays an important role in the metallurgical industry whose maintenance directly affects the production efficiency of enterprises. In view of the problems such as low maintenance efficiency and untimely maintenance in the current ladle passive maintenance scheme, the life prediction mechanism for ladle composite structures is established which bases on the stress analysis of steel shell and ladle lining in the production process, combining conventional fatigue analysis and extended fracture theory. The mechanism is accurate and effective according to the simulation results. Through which, the useful life of steel shell can be accurately predicted by detecting the crack length of it. Due to the large number of factors affecting the life of the lining of the ladle, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of the ladle lining, so a forecasting mean based on the thermal shock method is proposed to predict the service life of the ladle lining in this paper. The life prediction mechanism can provide data support and theoretical guidance for the active maintenance of the ladle, which is the prerequisite for scientifically formulating ladle initiative maintenance program.