About 1600 joint fractures were measured in tillites of the Upper Hecla Hoek Formation on the southern shore of Bellsund. Measurements were collected in 12 areas between the Renardbreen and Tjörndalen. Ray diagrams and contour diagrams of joint fractures, and contour diagrams of joint fractures after rotation to pre-folding position were made for each area. The preliminary analysis of diagrams indicates 2 conjugated joint sets: ca. 60°—120° and 0°—30°. This joint system is probably older than folding and was originated under ENE—WSW to NE—SW stress.
The efficient protection (support reinforcement) of a wall and heading crossing ensures continuity of the production cycle, and that is a quick moving of the scraper conveyor to the wall. Using low or high bolting as a support reinforcement element in wall and heading crossings allows for the elimination of traditional methods of maintaining longwall-gate crossings, and therefore allows for the efficient use high performance modern wall complexes. The paper presents the long underground experience, of the Knurów–Szczygłowice mine of efficient support wall and heading crossing maintenance, which was bolted to the rock mass with the usage of two pairs of bolts, showing full technical and economical usefulness of this support reinforcement method. The article also highlights work safety and the increasingly common usage of endoscopies when specifying the range of crack areas which directly effects the proper choice in number, load-capacity and length of the used bolts. The underground studies the measurements of the reach of the zones of fracturing and roof stratification (using endoscopes and wire type stratification meters) and the laboratory tests (using the test stand) have allowed to determine the safety factor for maintenance of the longwall gangway crossing, directly resulting in the necessity to install additional reinforcement. The value of the safety factor Sbsc-ch greater than 1 is advantageous and safe, and the value less than or equal to 1 can lead to a significant deterioration of the conditions of maintenance of a wall and heading crossing which was bolted.
Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
A mathematical model of the process of thermoelastic deformation and dissipative heating of elastomeric structural elements are assumed . The methods of prediction the longevity of structures based on the use of entropy fracture criteria are proposed. For solving of the link thermoelasticity problem of method of successive approximations is used.
In this work, the change of the structure and microhardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after remelting and remelting with SiC alloing by electric arc welding (GTAW method) was studied. The current intensity equal 100 A and fixed scan speed rate equal 0,2 m/min has been used to remelting surface of the alloy. Change of structure were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness test showed, that the remelting of the surface does not change the hardness of the alloy. Treated by GTAW SiC alloying leads to the formation of hard (570 HV0, 1) surface layer with a thickness of 2 mm. The resulting surface layer is characterized by diverse morphology alloyed zone. The fracture of alloy after conventional heat treatment, similarly to fracture after remelting with GTAW is characterized by extremely fine dimples of plastic deformation. In the alloyed specimens the intergranular and crystalline fracture was identified.
This paper presents a numerical investigation of fracture criterion influence on perforation of high-strength 30PM steel plates subjected to 7.6251 mm Armour Piercing (AP) projectile. An evaluation of four ductile fracture models is performed to identify the most suitable fracture criterion. Included in the paper is the Modified Johnson-Cook (MJC) constitutive model coupled separately with one of these fracture criteria: the MJC fracture model, the Cockcroft-Latham (CL), the maximum shear stress and the constant failure strain models. A 3D explicit Lagrangian algorithm that includes both elements and particles, is used in this study to automatically convert distorted elements into meshless particles during the course of the computation. Numerical simulations are examined by comparing with the experimental results. The MJC fracture model formulated in the space of the stress triaxiality and the equivalent plastic strain to fracture were found capable of predicting the realistic fracture patterns and at the same time the correct projectile residual velocities. However, this study has shown that CL one parameter fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give good results as the MJC failure criterion. The maximum shear stress fracture criterion fails to capture the shear plugging failure and material fracture properties cannot be fully characterized with the constant fracture strain.
New graphite tools were designed and produced to fabricate a semi-finished product from which nine cutting inserts were obtained in one spark plasma sintering process. As a result, WC-5Co cemented carbides were spark plasma sintered and the effect of various sintering parameters such as compacting pressure, heating rate and holding time on the main mechanical properties were investigated. It was shown that WC-5Co cemented carbides spark plasma sintered at 1200°C, 80 MPa, 400°C/min, for 5 min are characterized by the best relation of hardness (1861 ±10 HV30) and fracture toughness (9.30 MPa·m1/2). The microstructure of these materials besides the WC ceramic phase and Co binder phase consists of a synthesized Co3W3C complex phase. Comparison with a commercial WC-6Co cutting insert fabricated by conventional powder metallurgy techniques shows that spark plasma sintering is a very effective technique to produce materials characterized by improved mechanical properties.
The results of bearing capacity, deformability and fracture toughness of reinforced concrete beams with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet, obtained due to the conducting of the experiment and mathematical simulation which were made of concrete of C40/50 class are given in the article. Mathematical simulation of beam structures is done on the basis of the deformation model which allows to conduct calculations of the unified methodological positions of different elements with diverse configuration of cross section and reinforcement as well as take into consideration elastic and plastic properties of concrete and reinforcement, assessing the actual stress-strain state of sections of reinforced concrete elements at different loading levels, including ultimate one. The deformation model is based on the actual diagrams use of concrete and reinforcement materials deformation and conditions of efforts balance in the normal section and hypothesis of flat sections. The theoretical value of bearing capacity and deformability, obtained as a result of the mathematical simulation was compared to the experimental data. The satisfactory coincidence of the mathematical calculation of bearing capacity, deformability, fracture toughness and experimental data gives an opportunity to use the algorithm not only for beam structures with bar reinforcement but also for beam structures with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet.
The article presents the results of research concerning AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process under variable conditions of casting speed and cooling liquid flow through the crystallizer. The mechanical properties and structure of the obtained ingots were correlated with the process parameters. On the basis of the obtained results, it has been shown that depending on the cooling rate and the intensity of convection during solidification, significant differences in the mechanical properties and structure and of the ingots can occur. The research has shown that, as the casting speed and the flow rate of the cooling liquid increase, the hardness of the test samples decreases, while their elongation increases, which is related to the increase of the average grain size. Also, the morphology of the intermetallic phases precipitations lattice, as well as the centerline porosity and dendrite expansion, significantly affect the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of the tested ingots.
Nominal strength reduction in cross ply laminates of [0/90]2s is observed in tensile tests of glass fiber composite laminates having central open hole of diameters varying from 2 to 10 mm. This is well known as the size effect. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is implemented to simulate the fracture process and size effect (scale effect) in the glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates weakened by holes or notches. The analysis shows that XFEM results are in good agreement with the experimental results specifying nominal strength and in good agreement with the analytical results based on the cohesive zone model specifying crack opening displacement and the fracture process zone length.