This article presents a case study of a large wedge failure. It took place during excavation of the last bench of storage cavern with an approximate dimension of 80 m long having a depth of 8 m. The adopted intervention followed a structured approach, which included immediate rock support, geotechnical and geological investigations in the failure zone and design modifications. Back analyses of the failure zone were also carried out to assess design parameters with observed geological conditions. Re assessment in the failure zone was carried out using modified design parameters, which included shorter benches, rock support installation schemes such as longer rock bolts, reinforced ribs of shotcrete and reduced construction advances. Geotechnical monitoring in and around failure zone were carried out for recording any alarming movements in the rock mass. Initially, geotechnical monitoring was carried out in the recently excavated zone of the cavern on a daily basis. Based on continuous monitoring data for at least one week, the frequency of subsequent monitoring can be decided. In most cases the deformation of rock mass was considerably less than the alarming values which were calculated based on detailed design for different rock classes. The paper discusses the failure, investigation, cause, assessment and remedial measures to complete the construction of cavern.
Numerical analysis of the tensioning cables anchorage zone of a bridge superstructure is presented in this paper. It aims to identify why severe concrete cracking occurs during the tensioning process in the vicinity of anchor heads. In order to simulate the tensioning, among others, a so-called local numerical model of a section of the bridge superstructure was created in the Abaqus Finite Element Method (FEM) environment. The model contains all the important elements of the analyzed section of the concrete bridge superstructure, namely concrete, reinforcement and the anchoring system. FEM analyses are performed with the inclusion of both material and geometric nonlinearities. Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive relation from Abaqus is used to describe nonlinear concrete behaviour, which enables analysis of concrete damage and crack propagation. These numerical FEM results are then compared with actual crack patterns, which have been spotted and inventoried at the bridge construction site.
The protection of Polish architectural heritage in the former eastern borderlands, accomplished through the conservation and technical securing of historical structures, constitutes one of the main programmes that are implemented by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. Currently, many Polish historical buildings in the former eastern borderlands are in a very bad technical condition. The load-bearing systems of these elements, as well as elements of their finish, require immediate emergency securing work. The basic steps that precede conservation work are emergency structural works, which guarantee the durability and stability of the entire historical substance. The specifics and complexity of the problem of the failure of historical buildings often demands an in-depth analysis of a series of factors that are difficult to measure and which are responsible for the cause and effect relationship during the early stage of the technical evaluation of a structure. The analyses of failures of numerous historical structures, for instance that were carried out by the authors, have become the inspiration for the search for effective methods of analysis that would allow for an in-depth analysis of the causes and effects of the failures in question. The DEMATEL method (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) that has been presented in this work, and its fuzzy extension, has lately become one of the more popular methods used in the cause-and-effect analysis of various phenomena. The authors demonstrated how this method works on the example of the evaluation and securing of the load-bearing system of the XVII Collegiate church of the Holy Trinity in the town of Olykha in the Volhynskiy Oblast, Ukraine.
The aim of this study was to assess the innovation risk for an additive manufacturing process. The analysis was based on the results of static tensile tests obtained for specimens made of photocured resin. The assessment involved analyzing the measurement uncertainty by applying the FMEA method. The structure of the causes and effects of the discrepancies was illustrated using the Ishikawa diagram. The risk priority numbers were calculated. The uncertainty of the tensile test measurement was determined for three printing orientations. The results suggest that the material used to fabricate the tensile specimens shows clear anisotropy of the properties in relation to the printing direction.
To reliably calibrate suitable partial safety factors, useful for the specification of global condition describing structural safety level in considered design case, usually the evaluation of adequate failure probability is necessary. In accidental fire situation, not only probability of the collapse of load-bearing structure, but also another probability related to the people staying in a building at the moment of fire occurence should be assessed. Those values are different one from another in qualitative sense but they are coupled because they are determined by similar factors. The first one is the conditional probability with the condition that fire has already occured, whereas the second is the probability of failure in case of a potential fire, which can take place in the examined building compartment, but its ignition has not yet appeared. An engineering approach to estimate such both probabilities is presented and widely discussed in the article.
The effects of the miniature channel-shaped scratches not detectable by the present inline electromagnetic defect detection system employed for wires’ surface defect detection on the fracture behaviour of the wires for civil engineering applications were investigated numerically. Finite element analysis revealed that both miniature channel-shaped across-the-thickness and across-the-width scratches change the fracture behaviour of the wires in terms of the fracture initiation locations and fracture process sequence. However, miniature across-the-thickness scratches does not affect the fracture shape of the wire while miniature across-the-width scratches changed the wires’ cup and cone fracture to a fracture shape with a predominantly flat fracture. These results provide an understanding of the fracture behaviour of wires with miniature scratches and serve as an alternative or a complimentary tools to experimental or fractographic failure analysis of wires with miniatures scratches which are difficult to carry out in the laboratory due to the sizes of the scratches.