The paper presents a new geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective building structures protection. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. To minimize the mining damage or to reduce its reach it is reasonable to look for technical solutions, which would enable effective protection of building structures. So far authors concentrated primarily on the development of building structure protection methods to minimize the damage caused by the underground mining. The application of geotechnical methods, which could protect building structures against the mining damage, was not considered so far in scientific papers. It should be noticed that relatively few publications are directly related to those issues and there are no practical examples of effective geotechnical protection. This paper presents a geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective protection of building structures. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. The calculations were carried out in the Abaqus software, based on the finite element method.
The analysis of mechanical behaviour of spinal column is until now still a challenge, in spite of the great amount of research which has been conducted over the last years. It is a particularly complex structure considering number of components, their shapes and mechanical characteristics. The objectives of the presented investigations are to understand the mechanisms of the mechanical behaviour of the spine structure and the role of its components, as well as the factors of its dysfunctions as scoliosis discopathy, spondylolisthesis. Also some mechanical effects of surgical interventions by total disc replacement is considered. To account for the 3D character of the spine system including vertebrae, discs, ligaments, muscles etc. the finite element method (FEM) formulation was used throughout the paper. Some specific features of the structure are included in the models as non-conservative loads and muscular tension control performed by the nervous system. The finite element method together with CAD programs and experimental validation was used in investigations of a new type of artificial disc for lumbar spine. The stress analyses were performed for the prostheses being in clinical use and for some original new designs. The conclusions concern most important determinants of the mechanical behaviour of the system and the quality of the intervertebral disc prosthesis.
The article proposes the implementation of a novel method of plastic forming of internal toothing in flange spline sleeves. A method being the subject of Polish patent application P.416772 has been used for this purpose, which involves a combination of the scheme of the direct extrusion of a cone hollow with the die press forming of the wall to obtain a flange. The entire process takes place in a single technological sequence. The operations come one after another, so that there is no need for reheating the stock or carrying out intermediate soft annealing. The proposed method is assumed to be an alternative to the operation of press forming of internal spline sleeve toothing in a conical die  and to the operation of swaging on rotary swaging machines . It is assumed that this method, too, is alternative to other technologies known from the literature and industrial practice, whose specifications and literature references will be indicated later on in this paper. Computer simulations of the flanged sleeve plastic forming process were performed using the commercial numerical program Forge®3D. During the numerical computations, the distributions of temperature fields were determined on the cross-section of the plastically formed product. The computations enabled also the visualization of the plastic flow of metal, especially in the toothing forming regions, and the determination of the energy and force parameters of the process.
The article reports the results of a comparative analysis made for three novel unconventional gear wheel forging processes based on the authors’ patented [5,6,21] plastic forming methods developed chiefly for the purposes of extruding hollow products as well as valves and pins. These processes are distinguished by the fact that part of the tooling elements which are normally fixed during conventional forging are purposefully set in motion. This is intended to change the conditions of friction at the metal-tool contact surface and to induce additional thermal effects due to the transformation of the plastic deformation energy into thermal energy and, as a consequence, to improve the plastic flow of metal and to reduce the force parameters of the process.
The paper presents an analysis of the effect of shape of primary silicon crystals on the sizes of stresses and deformations in a surface layer of A390.0 alloy by Finite Elements Method (FEM). Analysis of stereological characteristics of the studied alloy, performed based on a quantitative metallographic analysis in combination with a statistical analysis, was used for this purpose. The presented simulation tests showed not only the deposition depth of maximum stresses and strains, but also allowed for determining the aforementioned values depending on the shape of the silicon crystals. The studied material is intended for pistons of internal combustion engines, therefore the analysis of the surface layer corresponded to conditions during friction in a piston-cylinder system of an internal combustion engine having power of up to 100 kW. The obtained results showed important differences in the values of stresses and strains up to 15% between various shape of the silicon crystals. Crystals with sharp edges caused higher stresses and deformation locally than those with rounded shapes.
The paper deals with experimental investigations of a set of metal "2-delta" gaskets of different depth. The gaskets were examined under assembly conditions, i.e. placed in their seats and loaded with the compressive assembly force with no operating pressure applied to the closure. The electric resistance wire strain gauges were used to measure the circumferential and axial strains at the inner cylindrical surface of the gaskets. The plastic deformations of the contact surface of the seats were measured after disassembly of the closures. The material tests were carried out to determine real mechanical properties of materials applied for the gaskets and the seats. The results of experiment were compared with the analytical approach. The plastic deformations were taken into account in the analytical solution of the contact region between the gasket and the seats. The results of experiment and analytical approach were verified by FEM calculations, which take into account linear hardening of the material, friction and contact effects.
The rigid finite element method (RFEM) has been used mainly for modelling systems with beam-like links. This paper deals with modelling of a single set of electrodes consisting of an upper beam with electrodes, which are shells with complicated shapes, and an anvil beam. Discretisation of the whole system, both the beams and the electrodes, is carried out by means of the rigid finite element method. The results of calculations concerned with free vibrations of the plates are compared with those obtained from a commercial package of the finite element method (FEM), while forced vibrations of the set of electrodes are compared with those obtained by means of the hybrid finite element method (HFEM) and experimental measurements obtained on a special test stand.
This paper is concerned with the 1st stage of HP rotor blade assembly steam turbine TK 120. The methodology was focused on the selection of mechanical properties and the way of the rotor disc modeling and estimating the degree of damage caused by creep. Then the dynamic interference between the frequencies of excitation and the natural frequencies was assessed. Static calculations were performed for the cyclic sectors consisting of the disc, disc blades, spacers and shrouding, including loads as temperature, mass forces from the angular velocity and the pressure on the blades. Then, the creep analysis using a Norton’s model and the modal analysis were performed. Static analysis gave information concerning the distributions of displacements, stress and strain components. In the creep analysis, the creep displacements and stress relaxation versus time were determined and the estimated degree of damage caused by creep was evaluated at each part of the rotor disc. In the modal analysis, the natural frequencies and modes of vibrations corresponding to the nodal diameters were found. The results of modal analysis were shown in the SAFE graph. Numerical calculations have shown that the rotor disc was a well-designed structure and did not reveal any dynamic interference.
This paper presents simulation and experimental results obtained with a Dead-Beat predictive current controller for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive system. With means of combined field and circuit simulations, an efficiency map and required current in a direct- and quadrature-axis are defined. A control algorithm was implemented within an open-interface inverter from Texas Instruments. Dynamic response for both axis currents was defined and verified as well as current ripples for different set currents in the quadrature axis.
This work presents a numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by friction stir welding, FSW, process. The numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by FSW was created. The simulation uses thermomechanical coupled formulation. Th model required creation of finite elements representing sheets, stiffeners and welds, definition of material models and boundary conditions. The thermal model took into account heat conduction and convection assigned to appropriate elements of the structure. Time functions were applied to the description of a heat source movement. The numerical model included the stage of welding and the stage of releasing clamps. The output of the simulation are residual stresses and deformations occurring in the panel. Parameters of the global model (the panel model) were selected based on the local model (the single joint model), the experimental verification of the local model using the single joint and the geometry of the panel joints.
In the paper, the authors discuss the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the cantilever thin-walled beams made of a carbon-epoxy laminate. Two types of beams were considered: circumferentially asymmetric stiffness (i.e., CAS) and circumferentially uniform stiffness (i.e., CUS) beams. The layer-up configurations of the laminate were chosen to get a vibration mode coupling effect in both analysed cases. The aim of the paper was to perform the numerical and experimental modal analysis of the composite structures, when a flapwise bending with torsion coupling effect or flapwise-chordwise bending coupling effect took place. Firstly, numerical studies by the finite element method was performed. The numerical simulations were carried out by the Lanczos method in the Abaqus software package. The natural frequencies and the corresponding free vibration modes were determined. Next, the experimental modal analyses of the CAS and CUS beams were performed. The test stand was consisted of a special grip, two beams with an adhered holder, the LMS Scadas III system with a modal hammer and an acceleration sensor. Finally, the results of both methods were compared.
This research work is devoted to the theoretical study of the pipe calibration on a mandrel. The aim of the study is to improve the precision of the calibrated pipes. As the paper shows, it is advisable to apply different methods of research depending on the purpose of the study of metal forming processes: mathematical, computer or physical simulation. Analytical review of existing mathematical models of the pipes calibration on a mandrel showed that the set of assumptions adopted in the mathematical modeling does not allow assessing the precision of the pipes during calibration. Therefore, finite-element method simulation package was used for this research. Research method and pipes precision index were developed on the basis of the computer simulation using Deform-3D package. The investigations have allowed us to get the dependence of the pipe precision on technological factors and to identify the root cause of reduced efficiency calibration – extrafocal deformation.
The study proposed the model of “guide mark” defects formation on the internal surface of pipes, produced on PRM mills of PRP – 140. The research of pipe forming at plug rolling mill with stub mandrel has been carried out; regularities of the dimensionless parameters characterizing the deformation of the gap release, depending on the reduction ratio, were determined. The model of “guide mark” defect formation on the internal surface of the pipe has been proposed. This allows for lesser wall thickness variation of rough tubes. It has been shown that, when using dioctahedral pass designs in comparison with hexagonal pass designs the proportion of displaced volume along the pipe axis is greater but the value is lower; thereby, the risk of “guide mark” defect forming is reduced.
The paper deals with experimental investigations of a set of metal wave-ring gaskets of different thickness and different assembly interference. The gaskets were examined under assembly conditions, i.e. pressed in their seats with no operating pressure applied. The electric resistance wire strain gauges were used to measure the circumferential and axial strains at the inner surface of the gaskets. The traces of contact at the working surface of the gaskets were measured after disassembly the gaskets from their seats. The material tests were carried out to determine the real mechanical properties of materials applied for the gaskets and the seats. The results of experiment were verified by FEM calculations and compared with the analytical approach based on the simplified shell model proposed for the gasket.
The aim of the study is to identify the relevant aspects of numerical analysis of impact of projectiles with soft cores into a package composed of thin flexible plies located on the plastic backing. In order to illustrate the problem, normal impact of 7.62 mm TT projectile into an unclamped package comprising 36 plies of Dyneema SB71 supported on the plastic backing was selected. The problem was solved with the use of the finite element method (FEM) with the explicit integration scheme (central difference method) of motion equations in the matrix form. Based on the conducted numerical computations, it was revealed that obtaining the extreme deformations of a projectile soft core and the backing material in Lagrangian description requires employment of adaptive methods. The proposed R-adaptive method performs its role but must be used carefully due to the mass loss which may appear during calculations.
In the paper, a solution to the problem of elastic deformation of thin-walled shell structures with complex shapes within the theory of geometrically non-linear shells has been presented. It is a modification of the Newton-Raphson method. In a variational formulation, the problem is based on a Lagrange’s functional for increments of displacements. The method has been applied to investigations of a harmonic drive, in particular to analysis of the stress state in the flexspline with a variable curvature as well as bearings of the generator. For verification of the obtained results, a more adequate FEM model calculated by ANSYS has been used.
The paper addresses the issues of quantification and understanding of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) based on numerical modelling carried out under four European, EU, research projects from the 7FP within the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, FCH JU, activities. It is a short review of the main projects’ achievements. The goal was to develop numerical analyses at a single cell and stack level. This information was integrated into a system model that was capable of predicting fuel cell phenomena and their effect on the system behaviour. Numerical results were analysed and favourably compared to experimental results obtained from the project partners. At the single SOFC level, a static model of the SOFC cell was developed to calculate output voltage and current density as functions of fuel utilisation, operational pressure and temperature. At the stack level, by improving fuel cell configuration inside the stack and optimising the operation conditions, thermal stresses were decreased and the lifetime of fuel cell systems increased. At the system level, different layouts have been evaluated at the steady-state and by dynamic simulations. Results showed that increasing the operation temperature and pressure improves the overall performance, while changes of the inlet gas compositions improve fuel cell performance.