In this study, we investigate the mechanical behavior of each skin layer, in terms of the nominal stress-strain curve by uniaxial tensile tests using specimens of porcine skin in two forms: dermis containing epidermis, and all three layers. All tests were performed under cyclic loading at the constant strain rate of 10–3 s–1 at ambient temperature. To measure the precise initial cross-sectional areas of each layer, the thickness of each skin layer was quantified by counting the number of pixels on the photo-image using image-processing software. In the tensile test, force-strain curves of the total skin and dermis with epidermis were obtained. Subsequently, a rule of mixtures was applied to determine the nonlinear mechanical properties of the hypodermis layer. In conclusion, we could define the uniaxial tensile behavior of the hypodermis, and additionally predict the weight effect of the dermis and hypodermis layers in the tensile test.
Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on porcine skin to investigate the tensile stress-strain constitutive characteristic at quasistatic deformations using uniaxial tensile tests. Experimental results were then used to determine the parameters of the various constitutive model types for rubber, including the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Ogden, and others. The Prony series viscoelastic model was also calibrated based on the stress relaxation test. To investigate the calibrated constitutive equations (visco-hyperelastic), the falling impact test was conducted. From the viewpoint of the maximum impact load, the error was approximately 15.87%. Overall, the Ogden model predicted the experimental measurements most reasonably. The calibrated constitutive model is expected to be of practical use in describing the mechanical properties of porcine skin.
The goal of this work is to compare different constitutive models in the nonlinear static characteristic analysis of asphalt concrete core dams. The Duncan E-μmodel, Duncan E-B model and double-yield-surface model are three major constitutive models in the nonlinear static prediction of earth-rockfill dam. In this paper, an earth-rockfill dam with asphalt concrete core-wall in an actual hydraulic engineering is employed to compare the three models. The finite element model of the core-wall dam is proposed. Nonlinear static analysis of the dam is carried out and the static characteristics are obtained to study the differences generated from different constitutive models. Numerical results show that both the stress extremum and the stress distribution of dam body with three different models are coincident one another. In the deformation analysis of dam body and core-wall, the maximum values of sedimentation with the Duncan E-μmodel and the Duncan E-B model, which are greater than the value with double-yield-surface model, are close to the practical test data though the deformation distributions with three models are in good agreement. But, the analysis results of core-wall stress with double-yield-surface model are proper and more reasonable than the other models.